Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change that could potentially increase the likelihood of weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if consuming 23 grams of peanuts, as a meal preload, before a carbohydrate-rich meal will lower post prandial glycemia and insulinemia and increase satiety in the 2 hour period after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Design: 15 healthy, non-diabetic adults without any known peanut or tree nut allergies were recruited from a campus community. A randomized, 3x3 block crossover design was used. The day prior to testing participants refrained from vigorous activity and consumed a standard dinner meal followed by a 10 hour fast. Participants reported to the test site in the fasted state to complete one of three treatment meals: control (CON), peanut (NUT), or grain bar (BAR) followed one hour later by a carbohydrate-rich meal. Satiety, glucose and insulin were measured at different time points throughout the visit. Each participant had a one-week washout period between visits. Results: Glucose curves varied between treatments (p=.023). Blood glucose was significantly higher one hour after ingestion of the grain bar compared to the peanut and control treatments (p<.001). At 30 minutes after the meal, the control glucose was significantly higher than for the peanut or grain bar (p=.048). Insulin did vary significantly between treatments (p<.001). The insulin change one hour after grain bar consumption was significantly higher than after the peanut or control at the same time point (p<.001). The change in insulin one hour after peanut consumption was significantly higher than for the control treatment (p=.002). Overall satiety, expressed as the 180 minute AUC, differed significantly between treatments (p=.001). One hour after preload consumption, peanut and bar consumption was associated with greater satiety than the water control (p<.001). At 30 minutes post-meal, the grain bar was associated with greater satiety versus the water control (p=.049). The bar was also associated with greater satiety versus peanut and control at 60 and 90 minutes post-meal (p=.003 and .034, respectively). At 120 minutes post-meal, the final satiety measurement, the bar was still associated with greater satiety than the peanut preload (p=.023). Total energy intake, including test meal, on treatment days did not differ significantly between treatment (p=.233). Conclusions: Overall satiety, blood glucose and blood insulin levels differed at different time points depending on treatment. Both meal preloads increased overall satiety. However, grain bar ingestion resulted in sustained satiety, greater than the peanut preload. Grain bar ingestion resulted in an immediate glycemic and insulinemic response. However, the response was not sustained after the test meal was ingested. The results of this study suggest that a low-energy, carbohydrate-rich meal preload may have a positive impact on weight maintenance and weight loss by initiating a sustained increase in overall satiety. More research is needed to confirm these findings.
- The effects of meal preloads on glycemia, insulinemia and satiety
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by Katie Fleming