Matching Items (19)

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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

Description

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Feeding Patients with Plants: Plant-Based Diets in Medical Nutrition Therapy

Description

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent and injurious. Thus, action is warranted to improve prevention and management of this disease. Nutrition plays a significant role in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. Registered dietitians, as nutrition experts, are qualified to use medical nutrition therapy as a method of prevention and treatment for chronic diseases using a nutritional approach. However, there is no consensus as to which eating pattern is the most efficacious. The aim of this review of research was to examine how plant-based eating patterns impact chronic disease conditions, with an emphasis on type 2 diabetes mellitus, as compared to omnivorous eating patterns. A literature search was conducted through the ASU Library, PubMed, and CINAHL using terms related to plant-based diets and chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. The results revealed that a plant-based eating pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Specifically, adults who have type 2 diabetes and consume a plant-based diet may exhibit enhanced glycemic control as evidenced by less insulin resistance, increased incretin and insulin secretion, greater insulin sensitivity, and improved HbA1c levels. There is sufficient evidence for registered dietitians to recommend a plant-based approach to patients with type 2 diabetes who would like to achieve enhanced glycemic control.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Dietary Mushrooms and Decreased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Case Study Approach to Validating an Experimental Design

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary killer of Americans. As such, alternative means of a dietary approach to preventing or mitigating the development of CVD is clearly needed in

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary killer of Americans. As such, alternative means of a dietary approach to preventing or mitigating the development of CVD is clearly needed in addition to the ongoing recommendation for increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Many studies suggest that fungi have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with CVD. Specifically, white button mushrooms, viz., Agaricus bisporus, are fairly common and inexpensive and full of untapped possibilities for efficacy although much additional research is needed. With antioxidants, e.g., selenium, and beta-glucans, viz., indigestible polysaccharides, white button mushrooms contain a plethora of bioactive ingredients that confer a potentially strong tool against the debilitating social impact of CVD.
The objective of this thesis was to establish protocols and a valid experimental design for testing whether dietary mushrooms could, in fact, be protective against CVD risk. Specifically, a case-study approach was used to validate this experimental method to test white button mushrooms and their impact on blood lipid levels and the inflammatory response. This dietary study involved preparation of two soups: a placebo, broth-based soup and one with one cup of white button mushrooms per cup of soup to provide one and a half cups of soup (and mushrooms) per day to each participant. The soup was prepared in The Kitchen Café at the ASU Downtown Campus (Phoenix, AZ).
After preparing the soup, the next goal was recruitment through listserv, local advertisements, flyers, and word of mouth of participants to test the overall plan. Over fifteen people responded; however, only one candidate met the inclusion criteria of someone at high risk of developing CVD and agreed to participate in the study. The participant visited the nutrition laboratory in downtown Phoenix (550 N. 5th Street). Anthropometric data and an initial blood draw were completed, and fourteen 1.5 cup containers of mushroom soup were dispensed to the participant. After two weeks, the individual returned and the same procedures were executed to include anthropometry and blood analysis. Even though the subject did not show changes in blood markers of CVD risk (lipids and inflammatory markers), the hypothesis for the thesis that the study design would be effective was accepted. Thus, the procedure was successful and validated and will be used in the future study.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Perceived Ratio of Vegetable to Fruit in Juice Diets: A Case Study of the Online Juicing Population

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the liquid part of a plant, fruit, or vegetable. Food can be ground, pressed, and spun to separate the liquid from the pulp. A juice diet involves juicing and consuming a variety of vegetables and fruits. The primary objective of this study was to gather information about the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated in freshly made juices during a juice diet. Therefore, the study survey inquired about various topics related to ingredient ratio during a juice diet. The survey data allowed for examination of the relationships between ingredient ratio and certain variables (e.g. gender, age, length of time juicing, juice fast participation, health effects, etc.). The study participants were recruited using online social media. Facebook was the primary method for reaching the online juicing community. A written invitation was distributed in several health related Facebook groups encouraging any person with experience juicing to complete an anonymous survey. This post was also shared via Twitter and various health related websites. The study survey data was used to examine the relationships between ingredient ratio and specific variables. The survey data showed participants had varying levels of experience with juicing. The responses indicated many participants were familiar with juice fasting and many participants completed more than one juice fast. Based on the survey response data, the most common ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by the participants during a juice diet was 80% vegetable to 20% fruit. The majority of participants indicated daily consumption of freshly made juice containing 70% -100% vegetables. Based on the survey response data, beginner juicers may be less inclined to incorporate organic produce into their juice diet compared to advanced juicers. The majority of participants reported positive health benefits during a juice diet. Some of the positive health benefits indicated by participants include weight loss, increased energy, and a positive impact on disease symptoms. Some of the negative side effects experienced by participants during a juice diet include frequent urination, headache, and cravings. Cross tabulation calculations between the ratio of ingredients and several variables covered by the study survey demonstrated statistical significance (i.e. length of time juicing, frequency of drinking juice, juice fast participation, number of juice fasts completed, servings of vegetables/fruit in a juice, percent of organic vegetables/fruit used in a juice, perceived positive side effects, and perceived negative side effects). This study provided insight about the average ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by participants during a juice diet. When analyzing the data it is important to consider the survey data was self-reported. Therefore, every result and conclusion is based on the individual perceptions of the study participants. In future experimentation, the use of medical tests and blood work would be useful to determine the biological and biochemical effects of drinking raw vegetable and/or fruit juice on the human body.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Microbial Diversity in the Human Gut Microbiota in Relation to Dietary Fiber Consumption of College Freshman at a Southwestern University

Description

First year college students have been identified as a vulnerable population for weight gain and the onset of overweight and obesity. Research regarding the gut microbiome has identified differences in

First year college students have been identified as a vulnerable population for weight gain and the onset of overweight and obesity. Research regarding the gut microbiome has identified differences in the microbial composition of overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Dietary components like dietary fibers, act as prebiotics, or fermentable substrate, that the gut microbiota use for metabolic functions including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess changes in the gut microbiota over time in relation to changes in fiber consumption in healthy college students at a large a southwestern university (n=137). Anthropometric and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of the fall and spring semesters between August 2015 and May 2016. Both alpha, within sample, diversity and beta, between sample, diversity of participant gut microbes were assessed longitudinally using non-parametric pairwise (pre-post) comparisons and linear mixed effect (LME) models which also adjusted for covariates and accounted for time as a random effect. Alpha and beta diversity were also explored using LME first difference metrics and LME first distance metrics, respectively, to understand rates of change over time in microbial richness/phylogeny and community structure. Pre-post comparisons of Shannon Diversity and Faith’s PD were not significantly different within participant groups of fiber change (Shannon diversity, p=0.96 and Faith’s PD, p=0.66). Beta diversity pairwise comparisons also did not differ by fiber consumption groups (Unweighted UniFrac p=0.182 and Bray Curtis p=0.657). Similarly, none of the LME models suggested significant associations between dietary fiber consumption and metrics of alpha and beta diversity. Overall, data from this study indicates that small changes in fiber consumption among a free-living population did not have an impact on gut microbial richness, phylogeny or community structure. This may have been due to the low intake (~15 g/d) of fiber. Further study is needed to fully elucidate the role that fiber plays in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota, especially when delivered from a variety of food sources rather than fiber supplements.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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The effects of omega 3 supplementation on markers of obesity and endothelial function in healthy subjects

Description

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result in impaired vasodilation through scavenging of NO. Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is beneficial at reducing body weight and in lowering many cardiovascular risk factors like atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine the change in plasma concentrations of leptin, nitric oxide, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in addition to examining the association between leptin and NO in healthy normal weight adult female subjects before and following omega 3 intakes. Participants were randomly assigned to either a fish oil group (600 mg per day) or a control group (1000 mg of coconut oil per day) for 8 weeks. Results showed no significant difference in the percent change of leptin over the 8 week supplementation period for either group (15.3±31.9 for fish oil group, 7.83±27 for control group; p=0.763). The percent change in NO was similarly not significantly altered in either group (-1.97±22 decline in fish oil group, 11.8±53.9 in control group; p=0.960). Likewise, the percent change in superoxide dismutase for each group was not significant following 8 weeks of supplementation (fish oil group: 11.94±20.94; control group: 11.8±53.9; p=0.362). The Pearson correlation co-efficient comparing the percent change of both leptin and NO was r2= -0.251 demonstrating a mildly negative, albeit insignificant, relationship between these factors. Together, these findings suggest that daily supplementation with 600 mg omega 3 in healthy females is not beneficial for improving these cardiovascular risk markers. Future studies in this area should include male subjects as well as overweight subjects with larger doses of fish oil that are equivalent to three or more servings per week. The importance of gender cannot be underestimated since estrogen has protective effects in the vasculature of females that may have masked any further protective effects of the fish oil. In addition, overweight individuals are often leptin-resistant and develop impaired vasodilation resulting from superoxide-mediated scavenging of nitric oxide. Therefore, the reported antioxidant and weight loss properties of omega 3 supplementation may greatly benefit overweight individuals.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Effect of a coconut oil supplement (2g/d) on total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy adults

Description

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, HDL) and thus reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Preliminary research at Arizona State University (ASU) has found similar results using coconut oil as a placebo, positive changes in HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed.

The goal of this randomized, double blind, parallel two arm study, was to further examine the beneficial effects of a 2g supplement of coconut oil taken each day for 8 weeks on cholesterol concentrations, specifically the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, compared to placebo.

Forty-two healthy adults between 18-40 years of age, exercising less than 150 minutes each week, non smoking, BMI between 22-35 and not taking any medications that could effect blood lipids were recruited from the ListServs at ASU. Participants were randomized to receive either a placebo capsule of flour or a coconut oil capsule (Puritan’s Pride brand, coconut oil softgels, 2g each) and instructed to take the capsules for 8 weeks.

Results indicated no significant change in total cholesterol to HDL ratio between baseline and 8 weeks in the coconut oil and placebo groups (p=0.369), no significant change in HDL (p=0.648), no change in LDL (p=0.247), no change in total cholesterol (p=0.216), and no change in triglycerides (p=0.369).

Blood lipid concentrations were not significantly altered by a 2g/day dosage of coconut oil over the course of 8 weeks in healthy adults, and specifically the total cholesterol to HDL ratio did not change or improve.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Effects of coconut oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation

Description

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) and an indicator of oxidative stress (TBARS) when compared to the control group receiving a placebo capsule (white flour) in healthy, sedentary adults between the ages of 18-40 in Phoenix, Arizona.

Design: This study was designed as secondary analyses of blood samples originally collected to study the effects of coconut oil supplementation on blood lipids and body composition. The original study consisted of 32 healthy, adult volunteers recruited from the Arizona State University campus in Phoenix, Arizona. Participants followed no food restrictions or special diets, exercised less than 150 minutes per week, had no diagnoses of chronic disease, were not taking statin medications, were non-smokers, and no female participants were pregnant. Participants were randomized into either the Coconut Oil group (CO) or the Placebo group (PL) at week 0, and baseline blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Each participant completed an 8-week protocol consisting of two supplement capsules daily (coconut oil or placebo). Final fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken at week 8. This study analyzed the blood samples for measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARS).

Results: Eight weeks of 2 grams per day coconut oil supplementation, in comparison to placebo treatment, did not significantly reduce serum CRP ( -13% and +51% respectively, p=0.183) but did significantly increase TBARS ( +16% and -27% respectively, p=0.049).

Conclusions: Coconut oil supplementation (2 g/day) may impact lipid peroxidation as indicated by an increase in plasma TBARS concentration. Future trials are necessary to corroborate these results using other indices of fatty peroxide formation.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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The popular calorie counter app, MyFitnessPal, used to improve dietary sodium intake: a four-week randomized parallel trial

Description

Nutrition instruction has become more accessible; it is no longer relegated to the doctor’s office, dietitian briefing, outpatient clinic, or hospital. Now it is available in people’s hands, pockets, and

Nutrition instruction has become more accessible; it is no longer relegated to the doctor’s office, dietitian briefing, outpatient clinic, or hospital. Now it is available in people’s hands, pockets, and purses via their smartphone. Since nutrition instruction has become more accessible, health professionals and members of the general public are increasingly interested in using smartphone apps to assist with health-related dietary changes. With more and more of the population required to follow certain dietary recommendations and/or monitor specific nutrient intake, commercially available apps may be a useful and cost-effective resource for the public. The purpose of this four-week intervention was to determine if the popular calorie counter app, MyFitnessPal, can be used to reduce sodium intake to ≤ 2,300 mg/day compared to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. This four-week randomized parallel trial enrolled 30 generally healthy adults who were 18 to 80 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to the MyFitnessPal (“APP”) group or to the paper (“PAP”) group and required to meet three times with the researcher for screening, baseline (start), and completion of the study. There was a significant difference in the mean urinary sodium change between the APP group and the PAP group from the start of the intervention to the completion (-24.0±32.6 and 8.5±41.9 mmol/g creatinine respectively, p = 0.027). Other positive trends that resulted from the intervention included a decline in dietary sodium in both groups and a higher adherence in the APP group compared to the PAP group regarding recording method. The MyFitnessPal app proved to be a useful tool in reducing and/or monitoring sodium intake. Thus, this trial reinforces the potential of this app to be used for monitoring other nutrients, but further research needs to be conducted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

Description

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population,

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012