Matching Items (23)

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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

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Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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2019-05

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Perceived Ratio of Vegetable to Fruit in Juice Diets: A Case Study of the Online Juicing Population

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The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the liquid part of a plant, fruit, or vegetable. Food can

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the liquid part of a plant, fruit, or vegetable. Food can be ground, pressed, and spun to separate the liquid from the pulp. A juice diet involves juicing and consuming a variety of vegetables and fruits. The primary objective of this study was to gather information about the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated in freshly made juices during a juice diet. Therefore, the study survey inquired about various topics related to ingredient ratio during a juice diet. The survey data allowed for examination of the relationships between ingredient ratio and certain variables (e.g. gender, age, length of time juicing, juice fast participation, health effects, etc.). The study participants were recruited using online social media. Facebook was the primary method for reaching the online juicing community. A written invitation was distributed in several health related Facebook groups encouraging any person with experience juicing to complete an anonymous survey. This post was also shared via Twitter and various health related websites. The study survey data was used to examine the relationships between ingredient ratio and specific variables. The survey data showed participants had varying levels of experience with juicing. The responses indicated many participants were familiar with juice fasting and many participants completed more than one juice fast. Based on the survey response data, the most common ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by the participants during a juice diet was 80% vegetable to 20% fruit. The majority of participants indicated daily consumption of freshly made juice containing 70% -100% vegetables. Based on the survey response data, beginner juicers may be less inclined to incorporate organic produce into their juice diet compared to advanced juicers. The majority of participants reported positive health benefits during a juice diet. Some of the positive health benefits indicated by participants include weight loss, increased energy, and a positive impact on disease symptoms. Some of the negative side effects experienced by participants during a juice diet include frequent urination, headache, and cravings. Cross tabulation calculations between the ratio of ingredients and several variables covered by the study survey demonstrated statistical significance (i.e. length of time juicing, frequency of drinking juice, juice fast participation, number of juice fasts completed, servings of vegetables/fruit in a juice, percent of organic vegetables/fruit used in a juice, perceived positive side effects, and perceived negative side effects). This study provided insight about the average ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by participants during a juice diet. When analyzing the data it is important to consider the survey data was self-reported. Therefore, every result and conclusion is based on the individual perceptions of the study participants. In future experimentation, the use of medical tests and blood work would be useful to determine the biological and biochemical effects of drinking raw vegetable and/or fruit juice on the human body.

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2015-05

Feeding Patients with Plants: Plant-Based Diets in Medical Nutrition Therapy

Description

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent and injurious. Thus, action is

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent and injurious. Thus, action is warranted to improve prevention and management of this disease. Nutrition plays a significant role in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. Registered dietitians, as nutrition experts, are qualified to use medical nutrition therapy as a method of prevention and treatment for chronic diseases using a nutritional approach. However, there is no consensus as to which eating pattern is the most efficacious. The aim of this review of research was to examine how plant-based eating patterns impact chronic disease conditions, with an emphasis on type 2 diabetes mellitus, as compared to omnivorous eating patterns. A literature search was conducted through the ASU Library, PubMed, and CINAHL using terms related to plant-based diets and chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. The results revealed that a plant-based eating pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Specifically, adults who have type 2 diabetes and consume a plant-based diet may exhibit enhanced glycemic control as evidenced by less insulin resistance, increased incretin and insulin secretion, greater insulin sensitivity, and improved HbA1c levels. There is sufficient evidence for registered dietitians to recommend a plant-based approach to patients with type 2 diabetes who would like to achieve enhanced glycemic control.

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2021-05

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Dietary Mushrooms and Decreased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Case Study Approach to Validating an Experimental Design

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary killer of Americans. As such, alternative means of a dietary approach to preventing or mitigating the development of CVD is clearly needed in addition to the ongoing recommendation for increased consumption of fruits

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary killer of Americans. As such, alternative means of a dietary approach to preventing or mitigating the development of CVD is clearly needed in addition to the ongoing recommendation for increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Many studies suggest that fungi have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with CVD. Specifically, white button mushrooms, viz., Agaricus bisporus, are fairly common and inexpensive and full of untapped possibilities for efficacy although much additional research is needed. With antioxidants, e.g., selenium, and beta-glucans, viz., indigestible polysaccharides, white button mushrooms contain a plethora of bioactive ingredients that confer a potentially strong tool against the debilitating social impact of CVD.
The objective of this thesis was to establish protocols and a valid experimental design for testing whether dietary mushrooms could, in fact, be protective against CVD risk. Specifically, a case-study approach was used to validate this experimental method to test white button mushrooms and their impact on blood lipid levels and the inflammatory response. This dietary study involved preparation of two soups: a placebo, broth-based soup and one with one cup of white button mushrooms per cup of soup to provide one and a half cups of soup (and mushrooms) per day to each participant. The soup was prepared in The Kitchen Café at the ASU Downtown Campus (Phoenix, AZ).
After preparing the soup, the next goal was recruitment through listserv, local advertisements, flyers, and word of mouth of participants to test the overall plan. Over fifteen people responded; however, only one candidate met the inclusion criteria of someone at high risk of developing CVD and agreed to participate in the study. The participant visited the nutrition laboratory in downtown Phoenix (550 N. 5th Street). Anthropometric data and an initial blood draw were completed, and fourteen 1.5 cup containers of mushroom soup were dispensed to the participant. After two weeks, the individual returned and the same procedures were executed to include anthropometry and blood analysis. Even though the subject did not show changes in blood markers of CVD risk (lipids and inflammatory markers), the hypothesis for the thesis that the study design would be effective was accepted. Thus, the procedure was successful and validated and will be used in the future study.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Will the daily consumption of commercially available high-protein pasta and cereal, in comparison to traditional gluten-free pasta and cereal, favorably impact weight loss and satiety in adults adhering to calorie restricted diets?

Description

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of gluten-free pasta and breakfast cereal.

Design: In a 6-week parallel-arm food trial (representing the first phase of a 12-week cross-over trial), 26 overweight and obese (Mean BMI 43.1 ± 12.4 kg/m²) participants, free of related comorbidities, were randomly assigned to the Zone diet (~29% energy intake from protein) or a control diet (~9% energy from protein). Participants were included in the trial if they satisfied the criteria for elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (top half of the TG/HDL ratios of all who were tested). Participants were instructed to eat prepared meals (total of 7 cereal packets and 14 pasta meals weekly) that included patented food technologies for the Zone diet and commercially available gluten-free rice pasta and a conventional name brand boxed cereal for the control diet. Body composition was measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale at weeks 1, and 6. Food records and diet adherence were recorded daily by the participants.

Results: Both the Zone and control diets resulted in significant weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.1 kg vs. -2.7 ± 2.6 kg respectively) over time (p = 0.03) but not between groups (p = 0.96). Although not statistically significant, the Zone diet appears to have influenced more weight loss at trial weeks 3, 4, and 5 (p = 0.46) than the control diet. The change in FFM was significant (p = 0.02) between the Zone and control groups (1.4 ± 3.6 kg vs. -0.6 ± 1.5 kg respectively) at week-6. Study adherence did not differ significantly between diet groups (p = 0.53).

Conclusions: Energy-restricted diets are effective for short-term weight loss and high protein intake appears to promote protein sparing and preservation of FFM during weight loss. The macronutrient profile of the diet does not appear to influence calorie intake, but it does appear to influence the quality of weight loss. Other measures of body composition and overall health outcomes should be examined by future studies to appropriately identify the potential health effects between these diet types.

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Date Created
2015

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Effect of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in blood types A and O: an evaluation of the "Blood Type Diet

Description

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in blood clotting. Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in adults with type A blood compared to type O blood over a four week intervention. Given the lack of previous research on blood type and diet, it was hypothesized that no difference in blood coagulation would be observed. Design. This study was a randomized, parallel arm, dietary intervention using healthy, omnivorous adults with blood types A and O. A total of 39 subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: a vegetarian-like diet group made up of 12 type As and 12 type Os and an omnivorous control diet group made up of 11 type As and 12 type Os. At weeks 0 and 4, fasting blood was drawn and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), von Willebrand factor (VWF), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and CRP. In addition, subjects were weighed and filled out a FFQ at weeks 0 and 4. Results. After adhering to a vegetarian-like diet for four weeks, type Os had a significant increase in PT (+0.24±0.32 sec/ p=0.050), whereas type As saw no significant change. There was a trend of weight loss for type Os in the vegetarian-like diet group (-1.8±2.6 lb/ p=0.092) and significant weight loss for type As (-0.9±2.1 lb/ p=0.037). Both blood types O and A experienced significant decreases in BMI (-0.3±0.4/ p=0.092 and -0.2±0.3/ p=0.037, respectively). No change was seen in APTT, VWF, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, or CRP. Conclusion. Type Os saw an increase in PT, perhaps indicating a reduction in risk of thrombosis and its related health complications. Type As were less responsive to the dietary intervention and may require more rigid dietary guidelines or a longer time on such a diet to see the benefits.

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Date Created
2013

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An updated food guide for vegetarians adapted to MyPlate: an evidence based approach

Description

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food Guide Pyramid for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans; and to adapt this revised food plan to the new USDA MyPlate format. This process involved reviewing the scientific literature to determine if the DRIs for the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets are adequate for the vegetarian population and using this information to develop new recommendations for vegetarians if necessary, analyzing the nutrient content of representative foods in different food groups, reconfiguring the food groups so that foods with like nutrient components were grouped together, determining the number of servings of each food group required to meet vegetarians' nutrient requirements at three caloric levels, and developing sample menus. A circular plate graphic, the Vegetarian Plate, was designed to illustrate the recommendations of this updated food guide. This updated, scientifically derived food guide provides a sound base for diet planning for lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. Further research is needed to assess the Vegetarian Plate's adequacy for children, pregnant and lactating women, athletes, and individuals with medical conditions or chronic diseases.

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Date Created
2013

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The effects of meal preloads on glycemia, insulinemia and satiety

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Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change

Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change that could potentially increase the likelihood of weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if consuming 23 grams of peanuts, as a meal preload, before a carbohydrate-rich meal will lower post prandial glycemia and insulinemia and increase satiety in the 2 hour period after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Design: 15 healthy, non-diabetic adults without any known peanut or tree nut allergies were recruited from a campus community. A randomized, 3x3 block crossover design was used. The day prior to testing participants refrained from vigorous activity and consumed a standard dinner meal followed by a 10 hour fast. Participants reported to the test site in the fasted state to complete one of three treatment meals: control (CON), peanut (NUT), or grain bar (BAR) followed one hour later by a carbohydrate-rich meal. Satiety, glucose and insulin were measured at different time points throughout the visit. Each participant had a one-week washout period between visits. Results: Glucose curves varied between treatments (p=.023). Blood glucose was significantly higher one hour after ingestion of the grain bar compared to the peanut and control treatments (p<.001). At 30 minutes after the meal, the control glucose was significantly higher than for the peanut or grain bar (p=.048). Insulin did vary significantly between treatments (p<.001). The insulin change one hour after grain bar consumption was significantly higher than after the peanut or control at the same time point (p<.001). The change in insulin one hour after peanut consumption was significantly higher than for the control treatment (p=.002). Overall satiety, expressed as the 180 minute AUC, differed significantly between treatments (p=.001). One hour after preload consumption, peanut and bar consumption was associated with greater satiety than the water control (p<.001). At 30 minutes post-meal, the grain bar was associated with greater satiety versus the water control (p=.049). The bar was also associated with greater satiety versus peanut and control at 60 and 90 minutes post-meal (p=.003 and .034, respectively). At 120 minutes post-meal, the final satiety measurement, the bar was still associated with greater satiety than the peanut preload (p=.023). Total energy intake, including test meal, on treatment days did not differ significantly between treatment (p=.233). Conclusions: Overall satiety, blood glucose and blood insulin levels differed at different time points depending on treatment. Both meal preloads increased overall satiety. However, grain bar ingestion resulted in sustained satiety, greater than the peanut preload. Grain bar ingestion resulted in an immediate glycemic and insulinemic response. However, the response was not sustained after the test meal was ingested. The results of this study suggest that a low-energy, carbohydrate-rich meal preload may have a positive impact on weight maintenance and weight loss by initiating a sustained increase in overall satiety. More research is needed to confirm these findings.

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Date Created
2012

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The popular calorie counter app, MyFitnessPal, used to improve dietary sodium intake: a four-week randomized parallel trial

Description

Nutrition instruction has become more accessible; it is no longer relegated to the doctor’s office, dietitian briefing, outpatient clinic, or hospital. Now it is available in people’s hands, pockets, and purses via their smartphone. Since nutrition instruction has become more

Nutrition instruction has become more accessible; it is no longer relegated to the doctor’s office, dietitian briefing, outpatient clinic, or hospital. Now it is available in people’s hands, pockets, and purses via their smartphone. Since nutrition instruction has become more accessible, health professionals and members of the general public are increasingly interested in using smartphone apps to assist with health-related dietary changes. With more and more of the population required to follow certain dietary recommendations and/or monitor specific nutrient intake, commercially available apps may be a useful and cost-effective resource for the public. The purpose of this four-week intervention was to determine if the popular calorie counter app, MyFitnessPal, can be used to reduce sodium intake to ≤ 2,300 mg/day compared to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. This four-week randomized parallel trial enrolled 30 generally healthy adults who were 18 to 80 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to the MyFitnessPal (“APP”) group or to the paper (“PAP”) group and required to meet three times with the researcher for screening, baseline (start), and completion of the study. There was a significant difference in the mean urinary sodium change between the APP group and the PAP group from the start of the intervention to the completion (-24.0±32.6 and 8.5±41.9 mmol/g creatinine respectively, p = 0.027). Other positive trends that resulted from the intervention included a decline in dietary sodium in both groups and a higher adherence in the APP group compared to the PAP group regarding recording method. The MyFitnessPal app proved to be a useful tool in reducing and/or monitoring sodium intake. Thus, this trial reinforces the potential of this app to be used for monitoring other nutrients, but further research needs to be conducted.

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Date Created
2016

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

Description

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

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Date Created
2012