Matching Items (33)

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Associations between self-perception of health and diet, and awareness and use of calorie labeling

Description

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before it was federally mandated under the ACA. This policy provided the opportunity to study the impact of calorie labeling on the purchasing behavior of McDonald's patrons. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine if self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements is associated with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. In addition, relationships between noticing or using calorie labels with total calories purchased were also examined. Receipts and survey responses were collected from 330 participants who purchased food and beverage items from 27 different McDonald's locations within a 20 mile radius of downtown Phoenix, Arizona. Results indicated that only 16.1% of the sample reported using calorie labels, and those who reported using calorie labels purchased an average of 136 fewer calories. Multivariate analysis indicated there were no statistically significant relationships between self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. However, it is possible that the small sample size of participants using calorie labeling precluded any statistically significant relationships among these variables from emerging. Further research with larger sample sizes should be conducted, to investigate individual level factors that may be associated with use of calorie labeling.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Meat consumption, moral foundations and ecological behaviors among college students

Description

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern regarding animal welfare may contribute to these trends, growing consumer interest in the roles that production and processing of meat play in terms of environmental degradation could also impact individuals' decisions about the inclusion of meat in their diets. Because these factors could be related to moral attitudes as well, the purpose of this study was to explore the relations among meat consumption, general environmental attitudes, and moral `foundations' of decision-making, including concern about minimizing `harm' and maximizing `care,' as well as issues of `purity' and `sanctity.' A survey was conducted among current college students using the New Ecological Paradigm scale and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire to assess environmental and moral attitudes. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess meat consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses explored the relations of environmental and moral attitudes with meat consumption, controlling for potential confounding variables. The results showed no significant correlations among meat consumption, environmental attitudes or moral foundations of harm/care and purity/sanctity.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Association between socio-demographic characteristics and fast food calorie menu labeling use and awareness among adults living in the Southwest

Description

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards in order to help consumers make healthier decisions when dining out. Previous studies that have evaluated menu-labeling policies show mixed results and the majority have been conducted in urban cities along the east coast. This study was the first to look at the effectiveness of menu labeling in a southwest population. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if noticing or using calorie menu labels in a fast food restaurant was associated with purchasing fewer calories. A second aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the likelihood of noticing and using menu labeling. Customer receipts and survey data were collected from 329 participants using street-intercept survey methodology at 29 McDonald's locations in low- and high-income neighborhoods throughout the Phoenix metropolitan area. The study population was 63.5% male, 53.8% non-Hispanic white, and 50.8% low-income. Results showed that almost 60% of the study sample noticed calorie menu labeling and only 16% of participants reported using the information for food or beverage purchases. Income was the only socio-demographic characteristic that was associated with noticing menu labeling, with higher-income individuals being more likely to notice the information (p=0.029). Income was also found to be associated with using menu labels, with higher income individuals being more likely to use the information (p=0.04). Additionally, individuals with a bachelors degree or higher were more likely to use the information (p=0.023) and individuals aged 36 to 49 were least likely to use the information (p=0.046). There were no significant differences in average calories purchased among those who noticed menu labeling; however, those who reported using calorie information purchased 146 fewer calories than those who did not use the information (p=0.001). Based on these findings it is concluded that calorie menu labeling is an effective public policy and that nutrition education campaigns should accompany national menu labeling implementation in order to make the policy more effective across all socio-demographic groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Dietary protein quality, muscle mass, and strength in vegetarian athletes

Description

Vegetarian diets can provide an abundance of nutrients when planned with care. However, research suggests that vegetarian diets may have lower protein quality than omnivore diets. Current protein recommendations assume

Vegetarian diets can provide an abundance of nutrients when planned with care. However, research suggests that vegetarian diets may have lower protein quality than omnivore diets. Current protein recommendations assume that vegetarians obtain a majority of their protein from animal products, like dairy and eggs. Studies have shown that this assumption may not be valid. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may not be adequate in vegetarian populations with high protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to analyze dietary protein quality using the DIAAS (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score) method in both vegetarian and omnivore endurance athletes. 38 omnivores and 22 vegetarians submitted 7-day food records which were assessed using nutrition analysis software (Food Processor, ESHA Research, Salem, OR, USA). Dietary intake data was used to calculate DIAAS and determine the amount of available dietary protein in subject diets. Dietary data was compared with the subjects’ lean body mass (obtained using DEXA scan technology), and strength (quantified using peak torque of leg extension and flexion using an isokinetic dynamometer). Statistical analyses revealed significantly higher available protein intake in the omnivore athletes (p<.001). There were significant correlations between available protein intake and strength (p=.016) and available protein intake and lean body mass (p<.001). Omnivore subjects had higher lean body mass than vegetarian subjects (p=.011). These results suggest that vegetarian athletes may benefit from higher overall protein intakes to make up for lower dietary protein quality.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Increased Dietary Protein in Sedentary Vegans and Vegetarians and its Effect on Body Composition and Strength

Description

Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer are leading causes of death in the United States. Although they result from a host of personal and environmental factors, diet

Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer are leading causes of death in the United States. Although they result from a host of personal and environmental factors, diet remains a critical way to reduce the risk. Plant-based diets in particular are associated with reduction in risk for chronic disease due to an intake that closely mirrors the Dietary Guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption, fiber, and fat intake. Additionally, plant-based diets offer a sustainable alternative in relation to food production as they often require fewer natural resources overall.

While there are many benefits to following a plant-based diet, potential concerns arise as well. Certain micronutrients can be lacking and protein intake can be inadequate without careful consideration of dietary intake. Protein is especially important for its role in maintaining lean body mass, which allows individuals to function in activities of daily living. Plant-based sources of protein are often less digestible; therefore, those consuming vegetarian and vegan diets may benefit from increased protein intake for preservation and perhaps improved lean body mass as well as strength changes.

Recent research has shown that vegetarians had significantly less muscle mass compared to omnivores despite similar amounts of protein intake in grams per day. Other research has shown that vegetarians do not necessarily see an increase in muscle mass when exposed to resistance exercise, whereas those following an omnivorous diet or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet do. However, other studies have found that vegetarians can achieve increases in lean body mass comparable to omnivores if 30g/meal of plant-based protein is ingested consistently.

It remains unclear what effect protein supplementation might have on strength and muscle mass among sedentary plant-based eaters. As such, the present study assessed sedentary vegetarian and vegan individuals as to whether increases in dietary plant-based protein could elicit changes in body composition, hand grip and lower body strength independent of exercise. After an 8-week intervention, no significant differences for lean body mass or strength were noted. Results are discussed in the context of trial integrity and supplement consumption issues.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Testing whether alternative goals of multifinal means are considered helpful in working towards a primary dietary goal in college students

Description

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets,

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets, Americans continue to find difficulty in establishing and adhering to dietary goals that could elicit long-term health benefits. Recent research suggests an important role for goal-setting strategies in health behavior change attempts, with some success shown in dietary behavior change, specifically. The current study thus aimed to explore whether having multiple goals alongside one primary goal of following a vegetarian, vegan, or pescatarian diet would increase the achievability of that goal. Participants of this study were broken into two groups: currently following a plant-based diet (ADHERE) and striving to follow a plant-based diet (STRIVE). Researchers hypothesized that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals set by participants would differ between the two groups, that the ADHERE group would report that their alternative goals were more helpful and less interfering in achieving their dietary goal than the STRIVE group, and that a higher rank of importance of the dietary goal would predict being in the ADHERE group. Results showed that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals did not differ between groups. The ADHERE group and STRIVE group did not have significantly different helpfulness and interference reports. Although, in an exploratory analysis, it was shown that those participants who reported at least 2 health/diet related alternative goals found those goals to be significantly more helpful than those who reported 0 or 1 health/diet goal. Results showed that rank of dietary goal did not predict group assignment. Overall, the results from this study showed that the type of alternative goal was very important when pursuit of multiple goals was in effect. Type of alternative goal seemed to be a higher predictor of the perceived helpfulness of the alternative goals than previous achievement of goals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Validation of the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for diet quality measurement in young adult males

Description

The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005

The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R) are tools that effectively assess diet quality, however, both are complex and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the REAP-S against the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R. Fifty males, 18 to 33 years of age, completed the REAP-S as well as a 24-hour diet recall. HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores were determined for each 24-hour recall. Scores from the REAP-S were evaluated against the HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores using Spearman rank order correlations and chi square. Modifications were also made to the original method of scoring the REAP-S to evaluate how the correlations transformed when certain questions were removed. The correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the HEI-2005 was 0.367 (P=0.009), and the correlation coefficient for REAP-S and the DQI-R was 0.323 (P=0.022). Chi square determined precision of the REAP-S to the HEI-2005 for overall diet quality at 64% and 62% for the DQI-R and REAP-S. Scores that were considered extreme (n=21) by the HEI-2005 (scores <40 and >60) had 76% precision with REAP-S. The correlation for the modified version of scoring REAP-S with the overall HEI-2005 and DQI-R were 0.395 (P=0.005) and 0.417 (P=0.003) respectively. Chi square statistics revealed the REAP-S accurately captured the diets of high quality versus low quality with 64% precision to the HEI-2005 and 62% of the DQI-R. When evaluating the modified REAP-S scores against the extreme HEI-2005 scores, precision increased to 81%. It appears the REAP-S is an acceptable tool to rapidly assess diet quality. It has a significant, moderate correlation to both the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R, with strong precision as well. Both correlation and precision is strengthened when values are compared to only the extreme scores of the HEI-2005; however, more research studies are needed to evaluate the validity of REAP-S in a more diverse population and to evaluate if changes to select questions can improve its accuracy in assessing diet quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviors

Description

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four projects that examined measurement properties of physical activity and sedentary behavior monitors. Project one identified the oxygen costs of four other care activities in seventeen adults. Pushing a wheelchair and pushing a stroller were identified as moderate-intensity activities. Minutes spent engaged in these activities contribute towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project two identified the oxygen costs of common cleaning activities in sixteen adults. Mopping a floor was identified as moderate-intensity physical activity, while cleaning a kitchen and cleaning a bathtub were identified as light-intensity physical activity. Minutes spent engaged in mopping a floor contributes towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project three evaluated the differences in number of minutes spent in activity levels when utilizing different epoch lengths in accelerometry. A shorter epoch length (1-second, 5-seconds) accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary behaviors than a longer epoch length (60-seconds). The longer epoch length also identified significantly more time engaged in light-intensity activities than the shorter epoch lengths. Future research needs to account for epoch length selection when conducting physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment. Project four investigated the accuracy of four activity monitors in assessing activities that were either sedentary behaviors or light-intensity physical activities. The ActiGraph GT3X+ assessed the activities least accurately, while the SenseWear Armband and ActivPAL assessed activities equally accurately. The monitor used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors may influence the accuracy of the measurement of a construct.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Applying MyPlate to procurement in food banks: implications for policy

Description

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to procurement of inventory at food banks. The purpose of this research was to determine if procured inventory at United Food Bank in Mesa, Arizona could meet minimum MyPlate recommendations for a typical food bank client and what implications the results could have for future policy. Inventory data was obtained from United Food Bank for fiscal year 2013-2014 and analyzed utilizing the MyPlate Analysis Program to determine contributions of each food category to MyPlate recommendations. Inventory was separated by MyPlate food category and analyzed to determine contribution towards a meal built around MyPlate recommendations. Results showed that the inventory could meet the minimum requirements for protein and grains for a family of four for at least three days, the amount of time an emergency food box is designed to last. On the contrary, the inventory did not meet minimum vegetable, fruit or dairy requirements. These results indicate that typical food bank inventory does not meet USDA MyPlate recommendations and that having nutritional policy in place could potentially drive donations and purchases to enhance the nutritional quality of future food bank inventory.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Meal-time Matters: An 8-week Randomized Control Trial to Examine the Effects of a Daily 18-hour Fast on Diet Quality in College Students

Description

ABSTRACT

Background. College students’ modifiable health behaviors, including unhealthful eating patterns, predispose them to risk for future cardiometabolic conditions.

Purpose. This novel 8-week randomized control parallel-arm study compared the effects of

ABSTRACT

Background. College students’ modifiable health behaviors, including unhealthful eating patterns, predispose them to risk for future cardiometabolic conditions.

Purpose. This novel 8-week randomized control parallel-arm study compared the effects of a daily 18-hour Time-Restricted Feeding protocol vs. an 8-hour fast on diet quality in college students. Secondary outcomes were resting morning blood pressure, biomarkers of glucose regulation, biomarkers of lipid metabolism, and anthropometric measures.

Methods. Eighteen healthy college students (age = 23 ± 4 years; BMI = 23.2 ± 2.3 kg/m2; MET = 58.8 ± 32.9 min/wk) completed this study. Participants were randomized to a daily 18-hour fasting protocol (Intervention; n = 8) or a daily 8-hour fasting protocol (Control; n = 10) for eight weeks. One ‘cheat’ day was permitted each week. Outcomes were measured at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, and 8. A non-parametric Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the week 4 change from baseline between groups. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05.

Results. Diet quality (p = 0.030) and body weight (p = 0.016) improved from baseline to week 4 for the INV group in comparison to the CON group. The data suggest these improvements may be related to reductions in snacking frequency and increased breakfast consumption. Fasting blood glucose and hip circumference tended to improve for the INV group in comparison to the CON group (p = 0.091 and p = 0.100). However, saturated fat intake tended to increase in the INV group in comparison to the CON group (p = 0.064). Finally, there were no treatment differences between groups (p>0.05) for the 4-week change in total calories, dietary vitamin C, added sugars, resting systolic blood pressure, resting diastolic blood pressure, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist circumference, or MET.

Conclusion. These data, although preliminary, suggest that the 18-hour fasting protocol was effective for improving diet quality and reducing weight in comparison to the 8-hour fasting protocol in healthy college students. Future intervention trials will need to confirm these findings and determine the long-term relevance of these improvements for health outcomes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020