Matching Items (93)

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Bariatric Surgery: The Good, Bad, & Questionable

Description

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal long-term weight loss, which has led to the prevalence of bariatric surgery as an answer to long-term weight loss for Class III obesity. Gastric bypass surgery has become especially popular for its numerous benefits including successful weight loss, improvements in obesity-related diseases, and increased lifespan. Bariatric surgery is still not a perfect solution. Negative effects after surgery range from surgical complications and vitamin deficiencies to altered hormonal levels and metabolic rates. Many questions regarding bariatric surgery still remain including the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery, long-term bone effects, and long-term psychosocial and lifestyle components of bariatric patients. Understanding the good, the bad, and several of the remaining questions regarding bariatric surgery, will help health professionals be more appreciative of the complexity of treating their obese patients.

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2018-05

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Characterization of Food Intake and Weight Gain Responses in Rats on a High Fat Diet

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With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low in nutritional values and high in saturated fats. Study showed

With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low in nutritional values and high in saturated fats. Study showed that every two out of three adults in the United States are either overweight or obese. Being obese increase the risk of many other disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Besides being a great health concern, obesity is also cause a great financial burden. Many efforts have been made to understand the defense against obesity and weight loss. The goal of this study was to understand the characterization of food intake and weight gain responses when imposed on a high-fat diet (HFD) using rats. It was predicted that weight gain would be dependent on energy intake and it would have a significant effect on adiposity compared to energy intake. Data showed that energy intake had high significance with adiposity whereas weight gain showed no significance. Also for the rats that were on HFD, the obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited a great amount of weight gain and energy intake while the obesity-resistance (OR) rats showed a similar weight gain to the controlled group on low-fat diet (LFD) despite being hyperphagic. This suggests that OR is characterized by equal weight gain despite hyperphagia but this alone cannot explain the boy defense against obesity. More research is needed with a larger sample size to understand weight gain responses in order to fight against the epidemic of obesity.

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2018-05

A Pilot, Longitudinal Study of the Effect of a High Fat Diet Compared to a Chow Diet on the Energy Gap Between Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure

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This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age on the energy gap (the difference between energy intake and

This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age on the energy gap (the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure). Measurements of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were obtained over a 23-hour period from a group of rats fed a high fat diet and a group of rats fed standard chow diet. The experiments were repeated during an experimental phase for 12 weeks, a phase of caloric restriction for 4 weeks, and a phase of weight regain for 4 weeks. We found energy expenditure and oxygen consumption to decrease in the caloric restriction phase and increase with excessive weight gain. Rats fed a high fat diet and obesity prone rats had a wider energy gap than rats fed a standard chow diet and obesity resistant rats. The caloric restriction phase closed the energy gap between energy expenditure and energy intake for all of the rats. The weight regain phase shifted the rats back into positive energy balance so that the energy intake was greater than the energy expenditure. The rats showed greater weight gain in the weight regain phase than in the experimental phase for all groups of rats. The indirect calorimeter device would require further testing to improve the accuracy of the measurements of respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production before being used in future clinical research applications. The indirect calorimeter device has the potential to record respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production.

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2019-05

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TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

Description

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

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2019-05

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Effects of Menthol on Weight Regain and Maintenance of Caloric Restriction: A Pilot Study

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The prevalence of excessive weight gain (obesity) has steadily increased since about 1980. Excessive weight gain is associated with many comorbidities; thus, a successful treatment is needed. The most common form of non-surgical treatment for excessive weight gain is caloric

The prevalence of excessive weight gain (obesity) has steadily increased since about 1980. Excessive weight gain is associated with many comorbidities; thus, a successful treatment is needed. The most common form of non-surgical treatment for excessive weight gain is caloric restriction with the intent to reduce body weight by 10%. Though this treatment is successful at reducing body weight, it often fails at maintaining the weight loss. Dietary menthol has been suggested as a possible treatment for excessive weight gain and has produced promising results as a preventative method for excessive weight gain. Our studies aimed at reducing weight regain and maintaining caloric restriction by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats 0.5% dietary menthol during a period of caloric restriction, aimed at reducing their body weight by 10%, following an experimental period where the rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD). The effects of the dietary menthol were observed during the weight regain period following the caloric restriction period. Two studies were conducted, and both were unable to achieve a maintenance of weight loss following caloric restriction, although our first study was able to produce a delay in weight regain and did not show any evidence of increased thermogenesis in menthol-treated rats. Our findings differ from the findings of previous studies on dietary menthol which could possibly be due to species effects, differences in procedures, age effects, or effects of different fatty acid compositions. The contrasting results in our studies could be due to genetic differences between litters used or a difference in manufacturing of the menthol diet between studies. Given the partial response to menthol in the first study, it can be suggested that the concentration of 0.5% may be below the threshold of menthol sensitivity for some rats. Future research should focus on increasing the concentration of dietary menthol from 0.5% to 1%, since the current concentration did not yield a reduction in weight regain or maintenance of caloric restriction.

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2019-05

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The Role of UCP-1 in Human Omental Tissue

Description

The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States, along with its risk for other associated cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Several therapeutic methods are aimed at targeting and reducing obesity, now defined as a state of chronic, low-grade

The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States, along with its risk for other associated cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Several therapeutic methods are aimed at targeting and reducing obesity, now defined as a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation (in addition to BMI > 30 kg/m2). In an attempt to expand on these therapeutic methods, research on the concept of browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is being conducted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), and a newly discovered type of adipocyte, beige adipocytes, are heavily involved in thermogenesis with the use of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1). This paper focuses on the analysis of common browning genes, ATP-related genes, and metabolic genes in varying biological groups in mice (Chow/High-Fat Diet and Inguinal FAT and Perigonadal Fat) and in humans (Lean/Obese and Subcutaneous WAT (SC) and Omental WAT (OM)) using methods such as RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The data obtained shows an increase in browning in the leaner group, specifically in the subcutaneous fat. Further, browning is significantly reduced in the obese groups of subjects and mice tested, in addition to omental/perigonadal versus subcutaneous/inguinal fat depots. Interestingly, two key ATP genes, UCP-1 and COX4I1 are vastly elevated in the OM WAT, indicating that browning may not be as important in the OM, but rather may have a potential role in SC. This is contrary to prior research findings that attempt to exclude mice surrogates in future experimentation of the browning phenomenon. Further experimentation is needed to expand on the findings of this paper.

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2019-12

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The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

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2017-05

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The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Description

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health concerns, and high healthcare costs, detection and therapies for these metabolic diseases are in high demand. Insulin resistance is a typical hallmark of Type II Diabetes and the metabolic deficiencies in obesity and is the main focus of this project. The primary purpose of this study is (1) detect the presence of two types of insulin resistance (peripheral and hepatic) as a function of age, (2) distinguish if diet impacted the presence of insulin resistance, and (3) determine both the short-term and long-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic health. The following study longitudinally observed the changes in insulin resistance in high-fat fed and low-fat fed rodents under ad libitum and caloric restriction conditions over the course of 23 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, body weight, and sensitivity of insulin on tissue were monitored in order to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. A high fat diet resulted in higher body weights and higher hepatic insulin resistance with no notable effect on peripheral insulin resistance. Caloric restriction was found to alleviate insulin resistance both during caloric restriction and four weeks after caloric restriction ended. Due to sample size, the generalizability of the findings in this study are limited. However, the current study did provide considerable results and can be viewed as a pilot study for a larger-scale study.

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2018-05

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Comparing the Efficacy of the Total Stabilizing and Posterior Stabilizing Knee Prostheses in Obese and Pre-Obese Females: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Description

Obesity is a growing issue in the Western world, as well as other international countries. This is leading to increases in complications associated with obesity. One such complication is osteoarthritis (OA) of load bearing joints that requires surgical treatment by

Obesity is a growing issue in the Western world, as well as other international countries. This is leading to increases in complications associated with obesity. One such complication is osteoarthritis (OA) of load bearing joints that requires surgical treatment by total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Obesity is also associated with an increase in surgical complications that may lead to poor TKA outcomes. Additionally, the female gender is also known to be associated with increased rates of severe, clinical OA. This study was designed to determine the comparative efficacy of two knee implants in the obese female population through retrospective chart review and data analysis. The implants differ in their level of constraint, with the total stabilizing (TS) being more constrained than the posterior stabilizing (PS). We hypothesized that the TS implants would be associated with improved functional outcomes in the obese female population. The TS implant was observed to be associated with earlier improvement of both passive and active range of motion. This implant also showed greater improvement from pre-operative condition in stability, rejecting our null hypothesis and supporting our hypothesis.

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2015-05

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Analyzing Successful Participation in the First Lady's Let's Move! Initiative: A Collaboration Between Let's Move! Active Schools and the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program

Description

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in adults and three-fold in children. Let's Move! Active Schools (LMAS)

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in adults and three-fold in children. Let's Move! Active Schools (LMAS) seeks to fight obesity and promote healthy environments in schools. In collaboration with the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) program at Arizona State University, three elementary schools in the greater Phoenix area were studied to determine factors associated with success or barriers to implementation of LMAS. Interviews were conducted with three physical educators to determine: the initial appeal and reason the school was attracted to LMAS, how leadership buy-in and participation have affected the success of LMAS in each school, how the resources and support provided by LMAS have best ensured the success of LMAS in each school, what LMAS can do to ensured the sustainability and continued success of the initiative, and how each school has implemented the five core principals of the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Results of the interviews demonstrated that programs previously in place in the elementary school resembling LMAS aided in successful implementation as well as leadership buy-in and participation's positive effect on implementation. The resource most used by physical educators at the three elementary and district advocates and more local workshops were two of the resources requested by the physical educators. The five principals of CSPAP were found to be incorporated at each of the elementary schools. The principal at the award winning school was interviewed and expressed the value she saw in LMAS. Suggestions for more successful implementation of LMAS included targeting the administration, pushing the online material, clarifying the availability of local workshops, and promoting movement lab activities.

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2016-05