Matching Items (18)

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Obesity in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Review of Recent Studies

Description

Background: Despite a multitude of health initiatives, obesity rates in America have continued to increase yearly, with obese or overweight people making up two-thirds of the population. Due to a

Background: Despite a multitude of health initiatives, obesity rates in America have continued to increase yearly, with obese or overweight people making up two-thirds of the population. Due to a lack of significant results from diet and weight-loss medication, new methods of weight-loss are increasingly considered. This paper looks beyond traditional Western treatments for weight loss and will analyze views and treatments for overweight and obesity in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Methods: Three databases were used to search for papers published after 2010 until October 2019 discussing obesity, overweight and TCM. No forms of Chinese medicine were excluded from the search. Studies were excluded if they did not meet the date criteria or if they overlapped with papers found in other databases.
Results: Six of the selected papers covered acupuncture (electro, balance or catgut embedding acupuncture methods) either jointly with other treatments or alone, one exclusively on moxibustion and three studies on three different types of TCM herbal medicine. Each study showed a statistically significant effect on body mass index (BMI) value decrease or total weight loss (TWL). The six acupuncture papers all showed statistical significance at the 95% CI against control groups (sham acupuncture or no acupuncture) and against before-treatment BMI values or TWL values.
Conclusion: Of the treatments reviewed, almost all acupuncture studies were shown to be consistently effective in treating overweight or obese individuals within this selection of studies, as well as in another meta-analysis. This may be due to acupuncture’s ties to a neuroendocrine mechanism. Future studies should further explore the neuroendocrine connection between acupuncture and weight loss. Herbal medication was also shown to have a significant effect in reducing weight in each study; however, two studies used mice or rats as subjects, therefore understanding the effects on human subjects is limited.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Case study: Weight Loss Intervention in a Young Adult with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from physical, mental, emotional, and health-related side effects. MH and his mother requested help from Dr. Shannon Ringenbach, and resided in Arizona for four months during the process of developing and implementing a program of diet and exercise for him. We created a plan to maximize weight loss in this short period of time. Overall, MH reduced his weight from 276 lbs. to 217 lbs. in four months, his lowest weight being 201 lbs. after he and his mother returned home to Oregon. This is a 75 lb. weight loss and body mass index (BMI) reduction of 13.7 kg/m2. Although to reach a healthy body weight MH would still need to continue his weight loss, this is a significant amount of weight, which is especially difficult for people with Down syndrome to lose. In this case study it was crucial to take into consideration the other aspects that affect weight gain and loss, such as motivation, family life, diet, and lifestyle.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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A culturally competent behavioral weight loss program for adult Latinos with a BMI >30kg/m2

Description

This study answers the question, “In Adult Hispanic BMI ≥ 30 (P), how does development of a weight loss program that utilizes Motivational Interviewing (I) compared to counseling and educational

This study answers the question, “In Adult Hispanic BMI ≥ 30 (P), how does development of a weight loss program that utilizes Motivational Interviewing (I) compared to counseling and educational materials only (C) affect weight loss over the period of three months (T).” There are limited published systematic reviews and randomized control trials to evaluate the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI), in conjunction with diet and exercise to promote weight loss. Participants (n = 5) were Latino patients of a local community health care center who were overweight and medically at risk due to unhealthy lifestyles that were determined through a screening test.

The 4-week clinical pathway program used motivational interviewing in one-on-one sessions every other week, and implemented the “Your Heart, Your Life” curriculum the other weeks. One expected outcome included lower anthropometric measurement numbers of participants’ WL, BMI, WC, and BP. Another expected outcome was an increase in physical activity. Participants were also expected to earn a higher score on a post-test about nutrition and healthy living. A paired t-test and power analyses were used to assess its effectiveness.

Results indicated significant decrease in weight loss (t [5] = 3.68, p = .0211, Cohen’s dz=1.647). For heart healthy habits, there were significant increases all three categories: weight management (t [5] = - 3.36, p = .0211), cholesterol and fat (t [5] = - 3.138, p =.035, salt and sodium (t [5] = - 4.899, p = .008). In addition, there was an increase in knowledge (t [5] = - 4.000, p = .016). Every participant showed small gains. Future implications should include more participants, including males, a control group, innovative activities that help to motivate a community of learners and more flexibility in allotted time for interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-06

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Using Wearable Technology to Increase Daily Activity: A Weight and Wellness Program Initiative

Description

Purpose: To assess study participants behavioral responses and perception of effectiveness of an activity tracking device to increase physical activity. Obesity is an endemic health issue in the U.S. and

Purpose: To assess study participants behavioral responses and perception of effectiveness of an activity tracking device to increase physical activity. Obesity is an endemic health issue in the U.S. and continues to gain concern for increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Benefits of physical activity are firmly established across healthcare disciplines to combat and prevent obesity, yet sedentary behaviors continue to be on the rise. The use of wearable technology, that provides real-time feedback of activity, has been identified as a promising tool for increasing physical activity.

Methods: Analysis of a subset of questions from a larger survey was used to evaluate wearable device attitudes and behavior changes over time. Convenience sample (n=10), ages >18, required enrollment in a clinic-based weight and wellness program (WWP) to participate. The survey questions assessed effectiveness of wearable device on a 0-10 motivation scale to increase physical activity and a self- assessment of behavioral changes at specific intervals over a 6-month period. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric, two-tailed tests will be used to analyze the data. Due to the necessity of detecting minute differences with the small sample size, the significance level will be tested at the p<0.10.

Results: Participants >18 years of age, enrolled in a WWP (n=10) included 20% male and 80% female. Although a 12.3% increase in the mean score was found from week-1 to 6-months, the results were not statistically conclusive to the effectiveness of self-motivation to increase activity by participants wearing an activity tracking device; however, results are statistically significant for participants to increase activity with behavior changes based on device dashboard.

Conclusions: It is recommended for primary care providers to encourage the use of an activity tracking wearable device for behavior change to increase activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-04-28

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Reduction of visceral fat in response to consumption of red wine vinegar

Description

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin.

Subjects and Methods: Forty-five sedentary overweight and obese adult participants with a waist circumference greater than 32 inches for women and 37 inches for men were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the vinegar group (VIN, n=21) or the control group (CON, n=24), and instructed to consume either two tablespoons of liquid red wine vinegar (3.6g acetic acid) or a control pill (0.0225g acetic acid) twice daily at the beginning of a meal for 8 weeks. Participants were also instructed to maintain normal diet and physical activity levels. Anthropometric measures, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood samples, and 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and at end of trial. A compliance calendar was provided for daily tracking of vinegar supplementation.

Results: Compliance to vinegar supplementation averaged 92.7 ±13.3% among the VIN group and 89.1 ±18.9% among the CON group. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric measurements between baseline and week 8: weight (P=0.694), BMI (P=0.879), and waist circumference (P=0.871). Similarly, DXA scan data did not show significant changes in visceral fat (P=0.339) or total fat (P=0.294) between baseline and week 8. The VIN group had significant reductions in fasting glucose (P=0.003), fasting insulin (P <0.001), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance scores (P <0.001) after treatment.

Conclusions: These data do not support the findings from previous studies that indicated a link between vinegar supplementation and increased fat metabolism, specifically visceral fat reduction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A feasibility study on the effectiveness of an 8-Week meditative movement intervention to initiate weight loss in female gastric bypass patients experiencing post-surgical weight gain

Description

While obesity rates have plateaued within the last decade,

two-thirds of the United States

population is currently classified as overweight (defined a

s a body mass index [BMI] of

25-29.9 kg/m²)

While obesity rates have plateaued within the last decade,

two-thirds of the United States

population is currently classified as overweight (defined a

s a body mass index [BMI] of

25-29.9 kg/m²) or obese (a BMI greater than 30 kg/m²). Bariatric

surgical interventions

are not only more effective than behavioral treatments

in the short term but are the only

form of obesity intervention with evidence of consisten

t long-term effectiveness.

However, even among bariatric surgery patients, weight

loss often stabilizes and it is

estimated that more than 20% of bariatric surgery patient

s will regain a significant

amount of weight that was initially lost long-term. Li

ttle research to date has been

conducted on physical activity in post bariatric surgery pati

ents. More specifically, there

have been no studies to date examining the effects of Me

ditative Movement (MM)

programs on body composition in bariatric patients. A s

tudy using an 8-week Tai Chi

Easy program was conducted in female gastric bypass patient

s to explore feasibility of

MM in the bariatric population as well as pre- and post-in

tervention changes in weight,

mindfulness, eating behaviors, body awareness, physical a

ctivity patterns, dietary quality

and mood. Data analysis revealed that there were no s

ignificant changes in weight or

physical activity patterns; however, significant changes w

ere observed in anxiety, overall

body awareness and cognitive restraint in eating. Addit

ionally, a significant decrease in

processed meat consumption and a weak trend towards increa

sed consumption of fruits

may suggest an overall improvement in dietary quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The relationship between friend's weight management advice, self-perception of weight, weight change intentions, physical activity, and eating habits in college freshmen

Description

Background: College freshmen are exposed to a variety of environmental and social factors that can alter changes to health habits and encourage weight gain. Weight-related conversations had with friends may

Background: College freshmen are exposed to a variety of environmental and social factors that can alter changes to health habits and encourage weight gain. Weight-related conversations had with friends may be related to self-perception of weight and alterations to health behaviors, but this association has yet to be assessed in the college population.

Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between friend advice about weight management, self-perception of weight, and alterations to weight change intentions, physical activity, and eating habits in college freshmen over time.

Methods: College freshmen from ASU with complete data for three time points (n=321) were found to be predominantly female (72.2%) and non-white (53.2%) with a mean age of 17.5±41. Complete data included responses for items included in analysis which were related to friend encouragement about weigh management, self-perception of weight, physical activity, eating behaviors, and weight change intentions. A longitudinal multivariate mediation analysis using negative binomial regression adjusted for sociodemographics and clustering by dorm was used to assess the relationship between 1) friend encouragement about weight management at time 1 and behavioral outcomes at time 3, 2) friend encouragement about weight management at time 1 and self-perception of weight at time 2, and 3) self-perception of weight at time 2 and behavioral outcomes at time 3.

Results: A small proportion of population perceived friend encouragement about weight loss (18.3%) and weight gain (14.4%) at time 1. Half the population (50.9%) had the self-perception of overweight at time 2. At time 3, more than half (54.3%) of individuals performed at least 60 minutes of MVPA and consumed at least ½ a serving of sugar-sweetened beverages each day, while nearly half (48.6%) consumed at least 2 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Males perceived more friend encouragement to gain weight (27.4%; p<0.01), but more females had the self-perception of overweight (54%; p=0.04) and were attempting to lose weight (59.3%; p<0.01). Individuals who perceived friend encouragement to lose weight at time 1 had a 14.8% greater prevalence (p<0.001) of overweight perception of time two, and a 9.6% and 6.9%; decreased prevalence (p<0.001) of weight change and weight loss intentions (p=0.023) at time three respectively. Individuals who perceived friend encouragement to gain weight had a 34.9% decreased prevalence of (p<0.001) of self-perception of overweight at time 1. In individuals with the self-perception of overweight at time 2, there was a 18.1% increased prevalence (p<0.001) of consuming at least ½ a serving of sugar-sweetened beverages/day and an increased prevalence of 22.8% and 24.0% for weight change intentions and weight loss intentions at time 3 (p<0.001).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that there was not a mediation effect of self-perception of overweight in the relationship between friend encouragement about weight management and behavioral outcomes in the current sample. However, the increased prevalence of overweight perception in individuals who perceived friend encouragement about weight management may inform future interventions to focus on how weight-related conversations with friends is related to overweight perception. More research about the relationship between weight-related conversations had with friends, self-perception of weight, and health behaviors is needed to confirm these findings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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PROP status and weight loss: does taster-type predict weight loss success?

Description

Given the continued increase in obesity rates in the United States, there has been growing research regarding factors related to obesity. Researchers have examined biological factors, such as set

Given the continued increase in obesity rates in the United States, there has been growing research regarding factors related to obesity. Researchers have examined biological factors, such as set point theory, as well as various psychological factors such as motivation, self-efficacy, and eating styles. Taster-type, defined as how an individual experiences the perception of taste (particularly bitterness), is a recent area of research that has explored the potential relationship between this phenomenon and obesity. The current study examined whether taster-type impacted weight loss, along with secondary measures of BMI, waist circumference, and food neophobia, as well as taster-type’s impact on these measures over time. This study also examined the potential role of taster-type as a predictor of weight loss, independent of the psychological variables of motivation, self-efficacy, and eating styles. Ninety adult participants, consisting of 64 females and 19 males were recruited for this study. They were asked to diet for four weeks; 60 finished the full four weeks and completed psychosocial measures over two time periods. They were asked to record their food using an online food journal, attend weekly meetings for weigh-ins, and were given psychoeducational materials regarding factors affecting weight loss. The results indicated that taster-type was not a significant factor in BMI or waist circumference, but taster-type did interact with time to reveal that supertasters consistently lost weight across the four week dieting period while nontasters leveled off after Week 2. Additionally, both groups increased in food neophobia from the start of the dieting period to the end of Week 4. Consistent with previous research, motivation and self-efficacy predicted weight loss; however, taster-type did not increase the prediction of weight loss across the dieting period. This effect only occurred at Week 2. By Week 4, no psychosocial variables were significant predictors of weight loss.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Internalized weight bias and its association with short-term weight loss outcomes in adults utilizing an online weight loss platform

Description

There are multivariate factors that not only play a role in an individual's ability to lose weight, but may create barriers to his or her success. One such factor is

There are multivariate factors that not only play a role in an individual's ability to lose weight, but may create barriers to his or her success. One such factor is internalized weight bias (IWB), which is inversely associated with weight loss outcomes and body satisfaction, and directly associated with psychosocial maladjustments such as depression and binge eating. This study examined the relationship between internalized weight bias and weight loss outcomes using a coding scheme developed for an online weight loss forum to see whether results would be consistent with self-administered surveys that measure IWB. The coding scheme was developed using an exploratory factor analysis of a survey composed of existing measures of IWB. Participants' posts within an online weight loss forum were coded and participants given a weekly IWB score that was compared to weekly weight loss using mixed model analysis. No significance was found between IWB and weight loss outcomes in this study, however, the coding scheme developed is a novel approach to measuring IWB, and the categories identified from latent constructs of IWB may be used in the future to determine the dimensions that exist within it. Ultimately, a better understanding of IWB could lead to the development of targeted weight loss interventions that address the beliefs and attitudes held by individuals who experience it.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Smart phones and dietary tracking: a feasibility study

Description

Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be a predictor of weight loss success and is a prevalent part of behavioral weight control programs. As more weight loss applications have become

Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be a predictor of weight loss success and is a prevalent part of behavioral weight control programs. As more weight loss applications have become available on smartphones, this feasibility study investigated whether the use of a smartphone application, or a smartphone memo feature would improve dietary self-monitoring over the traditional paper-and-pencil method. The study also looked at whether the difference in methods would affect weight loss. Forty-seven adults (BMI 25 to 40 kg/m2) completed an 8-week study focused on tracking the difference in adherence to a self-monitoring protocol and subsequent weight loss. Participants owning iPhones (n=17) used the 'Lose It' application (AP) for diet and exercise tracking and were compared to smartphone participants who recorded dietary intake using a memo (ME) feature (n=15) on their phone and participants using the traditional paper-and-pencil (PA) method (n=15). There was no significant difference in completion rates between groups with an overall completion rate of 85.5%. The overall mean adherence to self-monitoring for the 8-week period was better in the AP group than the PA group (p = .024). No significant difference was found between the AP group and ME group (p = .148), or the ME group and the PA group (p = .457). Weight loss for the 8 week study was significant for all groups (p = .028). There was no significant difference in weight loss between groups. Number of days recorded regardless of group assignment showed a weak correlation to weight loss success (p = .068). Smartphone owners seeking to lose weight should be encouraged by the potential success associated with dietary tracking using a smartphone app as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012