Matching Items (127)

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Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

Description

In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and

In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05) but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively). Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

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Date Created
  • 2016-11-15

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Vitamin C Supplementation Slightly Improves Physical Activity Levels and Reduces Cold Incidence in Men with Marginal Vitamin C Status: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Description

The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with

The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity. This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18–35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m[superscript 2]; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L) received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial. All participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire weekly. In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [−4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10). The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04) and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (−3.2 days; 95% CI [−7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06). These data suggest measurable health advantages associated with vitamin C supplementation in a population with adequate-to-low vitamin C status.

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Date Created
  • 2014-07-09

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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

Description

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A 15-Minute Walk: The Short Term Effect of Low Intensity Physical Activity on the Hunger Levels of Pre-diabetic, Obese Adults

Description

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk on the hunger and energy intake of 10 obese, pre-diabetic adults. Subjects participated in three 4-hour trials: a walk treatment (consume highly glycemic meal, walk for 15 minutes at a moderate pace, and rest for 4 hours), a fiber treatment (consume highly glycemic meal enriched with soluble fiber and rest for 4 hours), and a control treatment (consume highly glycemic meal without fiber and rest for 4 hours). The effects of each treatment on hunger and energy intake were measured using a Likert scale analysis (ranging from "completely satisfied" to "extremely hungry") at 4 hours post-treatment and pre/ post 24-hour dietary logs. The results showed no significant increase or decrease on hunger or energy intake for both the walk and the fiber treatment compared to the control treatment. This denies the idea that physical activity might increase short-term hunger, and supports the use of physical activity as a viable nutrition related intervention tool.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

Energy Expenditure: Relationships Between Ghrelin And Body Composition In Healthy Young Men

Description

Ghrelin is an acylated peptide hormone with far reaching affects within the human body. Consisting of both central and peripheral effects, ghrelin has been the topic of research since its

Ghrelin is an acylated peptide hormone with far reaching affects within the human body. Consisting of both central and peripheral effects, ghrelin has been the topic of research since its discovery in 1999. These effects include energy maintenance, cardiovascular health, growth hormone mediation, glucose homeostasis, muscle growth and atrophy, and bone metabolism, all of which work in concert with other well-known physiological mechanisms. With the goal to reproduce a similar study done in females in males, this study hypothesized that ghrelin would present an inverse relationship with a young healthy male population's resting metabolic rates. The study consisted of taking resting metabolic rate measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood ghrelin testing, and statistical analysis of the data. The hypothesis was shown to be incorrect as the data showed a positive correlation, albeit, with very low statistical significance. Despite the data, past research has shown ghrelin plays a major role in fat gain, fat loss, and energy expenditure. Obesity is plaguing the world and becoming a major pubic health concern. It is necessary to explore causality and casual relationships in order to better understand and combat obesity. Therefore, further research is warranted into ghrelin and energy expenditure as a biomarker or novel treatment for obesity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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AMBROFIT: A Research-Driven Practicum in Nutritional Product Development

Description

Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of,

Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of, and upgrade to, Ambrofit's work. The project begins with a brief discussion of the supplement industry, motivating the problem which myself and Ambrofit are trying to solve. It addresses the shortcomings of the industry, its regulatory history, and the causal factors which create the industry's environment. As the main part of the project, I design and execute a systematic, evidence-based nutritional product formulation process to create an scientifically sound ergogenic aid which can reliably accelerate training adaptations. The methodology starts with a round of exploratory research to discover potential ingredients then systematically analyzes each ingredient in multiple rounds of effectiveness and safety screenings until the final formula can be synthesized. Ergogenics were the focus of this project because Ambrofit's current product is an ergogenic aid, but I will apply this same process to formulate Ambrofit's whole product line in the future. The second arm of the project is a clinical study protocol design - an evidence-based product created from secondary research is a good start, but ultimately, the formula must be validated by direct research. The protocol describes an 8-week study with well-trained subjects which would either support or reject the formula's ability to accelerate anaerobic training adaptations. The project concludes with a discussion and application of Ambrofit's marketing. This part of the project was done with boots-on-the-ground; Ambrofit is already operating commercially, so I was able test marketing ideas live and evaluate their performance.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Testing the Anti-Glycemic Effect of Commercial Apple Cider Vinegar Pills

Description

A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way

A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way of managing the symptoms of disease. However, liquid vinegar consumption is often poorly tolerated and ingestion can invoke nausea. This pilot study examined the effect of liquid vinegar versus commercial vinegar pills on postprandial glycemia in 12 healthy adults. All participants were healthy with fasting blood glucose averaging 91mg/dl. This study examined the efficacy of liquid vinegar ingestion (25 g apple cider vinegar [1.25 g acetic acid]) versus vinegar pill ingestion (4 vinegar tablets [1.5 g acetic acid] either consumed whole or crushed and then dissolved in water) on postprandial glycemia. At 30 minutes following a standard test meal (bagel + jelly + juice; 106 g carbohydrate), blood glucose concentrations were reduced 12% in comparison to the pill groups or to a no vinegar control (135.6±15.8, 154.3±22.2, 152.7±30.6, and 157.7±22.8 mg/dl for the liquid vinegar, whole pill, crushed pill, and control groups respectively; p=0.023). These data suggest that in healthy adults, four commercial vinegar pills with a reported acetic acid content of 1.5 g acetic acid are not effective for improving glycemic control.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Asthma ICAM-1 2: The Effects of Vitamin C on s-ICAM Expression

Description

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of 4 subjects. One group was the vitamin C group (VC) and the other was the placebo group (PL). The study was analyzed through observing concentrations of biomolecules present within samples of blood plasma and nasal lavages. These included vitamin C, sICAM-1 expression, and histamine. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from this study. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.3, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. For Nasal ICAM p=0.5 at Day 0, p=0.4 at Day 4, and p=0.9 at Day 18. For the Histamine samples p=0.9 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from both studies. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.8, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. The change of vitamin C at the end of this study and the combined data both had a P-value that was calculated to be lower than 0.05, which meant that this change was significant because it was due to the intervention and not chance. For Nasal ICAM samples p=0.7 at Day 0, p=0.7 at Day 4, and p=1 at Day 18. For the Histamine p=0.7 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. This study carries various implications although the study data was unable to show much significance. This was the second study to test this, and as more research is done, and the sample size grows, one will be able to observe whether this really is the mechanism through which vitamin C plays a role in immunological functions.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Effects of Ketones from Intermittent Fasting

Description

Ketone bodies are produced in the liver from the acetyl CoA derived from fatty acids that cannot enter the Krebs cycle. This is a sub-analysis of a larger study which

Ketone bodies are produced in the liver from the acetyl CoA derived from fatty acids that cannot enter the Krebs cycle. This is a sub-analysis of a larger study which had numerous outcome markers. This analysis focuses on the relationship between ketone blood levels and cognition. The study looked at the relationship between Time Restricted Feeding (TRF), a method of intermittent fasting. TRF is something that can be easily adapted into an individual’s lifestyle and has been shown to have multiple advantages. This 8-week study began with 23 enrolled participants, but due to COVID-19 only 11 participants could be tested for cognition and blood ketone levels after week 4. All participants had similar ranges of weight, height, age, BMI, hip, and waist measurements at baseline. Moreover, these demographic variables were not related to ketone levels or cognition. The data indicate that ketone bodies increased in participants practicing TRF and that the increase in ketone bodies in the blood, specifically β-hydroxybutyrate was strongly correlated to increased cognitive function. This is consistent with theories that elevated ketone levels allowed for early hunter-gather communities and other mammals to survive prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation while keeping high cognitive function.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BONE AND MUSCLE: EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON OSTEOPOROSIS AND SARCOPENIA

Description

Osteosarcopenia is a newly formed term that combines the symptoms of osteoporosis and sarcopenia together because of their concurrent appearances in life. They are both age-related, debilitating conditions that affect

Osteosarcopenia is a newly formed term that combines the symptoms of osteoporosis and sarcopenia together because of their concurrent appearances in life. They are both age-related, debilitating conditions that affect older adults’ skeleton and musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis specifically targets the cells of the bone and make them weak and porous. Sarcopenia attacks the skeletal muscles and deteriorates the muscle fibers, decreasing mass and strength. Both diseases put sedentary elders at high risk of sustaining fractures and proneness to fall. The manifestation of one condition typically leads to the other because of their obvious physical attachments as well as their direct chemical crosstalk. The onset of osteosarcopenia is subtle coinciding with age related processes that become greatly exacerbated and accelerated when coupled with chronic inactivity. Thus, a critical intervention for managing the disability associated with osteosarcopenia is physical activity. While some pharmacological treatments or supplements are known to have positive results in stemming further bone loss, regular participation in moderate-intensity exercises is considered the most effective treatment for attenuating further bone and muscle loss.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05