3xTg-AD Mice Exhibit Neuropathological Sex Discrepancies that Correlate with Circulating Choline Levels

Description
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is projected to increase, and understanding risk and protective factors could help mitigate this increase. Deficits in Choline, a B-like vitamin, intake or issues with endogenous choline production can lead to an increased risk for AD development.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is projected to increase, and understanding risk and protective factors could help mitigate this increase. Deficits in Choline, a B-like vitamin, intake or issues with endogenous choline production can lead to an increased risk for AD development. To better understand the effects of endogenous choline through the lifespan in the context of Alzheimer pathology, Male and Female 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice, were aged to 16.81 ± 0.13 months. Body weight, food consumption data, and blood plasma samples were collected across the lifespan. A behavioral battery, that consisted of Rotarod, Elevated Plus Maze, and Intellicage, was performed to assess differences across a range of tasks. Hippocampal and cortical tissue were collected to assess pathology. Overall, 3xTg-AD mice had lower choline levels than NonTg at multiple timepoints and Males had higher choline than Females. Furthermore, 3xTg-AD Females had higher levels of both Aβ and Tau pathology than their Male counterparts. In the Intellicage, Females made fewer Percent of Correct Responses during Place Preference. Together these findings show that choline levels through the lifespan, impact the severity of pathology between Males and Female 3xTg-AD mice and behavioral differences between the 3xTg-AD and NonTg mouse models.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

The Role of Type 9 Protein Secretion System in Interspecies Relations between Human Oral Isolates Capnocytophaga ochracea and Streptococcus gordonii

Description
The oral microbiome is home to some of the most diverse and vital bacteria. It is important to understand how it works in its home environment and in laboratory settings to see if any discrepancies come from the different settings.

The oral microbiome is home to some of the most diverse and vital bacteria. It is important to understand how it works in its home environment and in laboratory settings to see if any discrepancies come from the different settings. It is also important to see how different bacteria interact with each other to either support or hinder different functions of all the bacteria.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

luca_spring_2024-fully-sized-figures.pdf

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Date Created
2024-05
Agent

luca_spring_2024.pdf

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Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Exploring DNA nanotechnology: Enhancing the NK cell immune response against tumors.

Description
Cell immunotherapies have revolutionized clinical oncology. While CAR T cell therapy has been very effective in clinical studies, off-target immune toxicity limits eligible patients. Thus, NK cells have been approached with the same therapy design since NK cells have a

Cell immunotherapies have revolutionized clinical oncology. While CAR T cell therapy has been very effective in clinical studies, off-target immune toxicity limits eligible patients. Thus, NK cells have been approached with the same therapy design since NK cells have a more favorable safety profile. Therefore, the purpose of this research project is to explore DNA nanotech-based NK cell engagers (NKCEs) that force an immunological synapse between the NK cell and the cancer cell, leading to cancer death. DNA tetrabody (TB) and DNA tetrahedron (TDN) are fabricated and armed with HER2 affibody for tight adhesion to HER2+ cancer cell lines like SKBR3. Overall, relationship between TB-NK treatment and cancer cell apoptosis is still unclear. TB-NK treatment induces an apoptotic profile similar to PMA/IO stimulation. Pilot cell assay needs to be replicated with additional controls and a shortened treatment window. For DNA TDN fabrication, HER2 affibody polishing with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography achieves high purity with 20% to 100% high-imidazole elution gradient. ssDNA-HER2 affibody conjugation is optimal when ssDNA is treated with 40-fold excess sulfo-SMCC for 4 hours. In conclusion, the manufacturing of DNA-based NKCEs is rapid and streamlined, which gives these NKCEs the potential to become a ready to use immunotherapy.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

The Development and Validation of Comprehensive Questionnaires for Pitt Hopkins Syndrome Daily Functioning and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

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Description
Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome is not a well-known disorder, and there are not many treatments dedicated to alleviating the severe symptoms that children and adults with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome suffer through. The purpose of this study is to create questionnaires tailored to Pitt-Hopkins

Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome is not a well-known disorder, and there are not many treatments dedicated to alleviating the severe symptoms that children and adults with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome suffer through. The purpose of this study is to create questionnaires tailored to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. With the dearth of Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome research, more knowledge on the disorder and treatments to aid in daily functioning and quality of life can be attained through specialized symptom tracking questionnaires. During this study, the research team designed and finalized two Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome symptom specific questionnaires. Some of the most notable results included the discovery of the most severe symptoms: verbal expression, cognition, social activity, and attention. Additionally, through cross-correlational analysis interrelated symptom clusters that can be targeted for treatment have been discovered.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

The Vitality of Clean Air in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Health Analysis of Koyash, a Novel, Off Grid Air Purification System

Description
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is one of the world’s coldest capital cities with roughly 1.5 million residents. About fifty percent of the city’s residents are off the electrical grid and millions continue to live nomadic lifestyles, raising livestock for food. Problematically, residents

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is one of the world’s coldest capital cities with roughly 1.5 million residents. About fifty percent of the city’s residents are off the electrical grid and millions continue to live nomadic lifestyles, raising livestock for food. Problematically, residents often turn to raw coal - Mongolia’s largest export - as a means to cook food and stay warm. Project Koyash is a philanthropic engineering initiative that was founded in the Arizona State University Program Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) to combat the air quality crisis plaguing the ger districts of Ulaanbaatar. Koyash has already deployed 13 fully functional and autonomous units consisting of a solar powered air filtration system in Ulaanbaatar. Koyash innovated a solution of solar panels, air filters, batteries, inverters, PCB Arduinos, and other necessary components for providing crucial humanitarian services. The team is working to send more units and develop a local supply chain for the systems. This thesis project explores the development of Koyash, assesses the human health implications of air pollution, and reflects on the entire process.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Comparative Morphological Analysis of Crown Giant Anoles

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Description
The morphological characteristics of organisms are intricately linked to their ecological features. As a result, species with similar ecological niches may exhibit shared morphological traits due to convergent evolution. Some genomic features could be relevant to influencing the occurrence of

The morphological characteristics of organisms are intricately linked to their ecological features. As a result, species with similar ecological niches may exhibit shared morphological traits due to convergent evolution. Some genomic features could be relevant to influencing the occurrence of convergence evolution. Anoles, with over 400 species, are an excellent model for studying this process. Within Anolis, groups of species that have evolved similar morphological traits and ecological adaptations in response to specific environmental niches are described as ecomorphs. One ecomorph, the crown-giant anoles, has independently evolved large body sizes and adapted to arboreal habitats, predominantly occupying the upper canopy layer of forests. The objective of this study was to explore the convergent evolution of morphological traits in crown giant anoles, by comparing the osteological traits of two crown giants, Anolis frenatus, and A. equestris, to four non-crown giant species from different ecomorphs, A. auratus, A. carolinensis, A. biporcatus, and A. sagrei. The analysis indicated an absence of convergence in most morphological traits except for body size (SVL). Additionally, this study explored the potential role of transposable elements (TEs) as a genomic feature shaping the morphological diversity of crown giant anoles. The genes located within TE-rich regions on the genome were identified across selected Anolis species. An enrichment of genes associated with regulation and developmental processes was detected in regions with high TE abundance for all analyzed species, but not exclusive to crown giants. The results suggest that crown giants seem to only converge in their substantial body size and that the variability in other morphological characteristics could be attributed to some other ecological features or the phylogenetic relationships of each species. Moreover, TEs may play a role in facilitating morphological evolution and adaptability in all Anolis species, as they could influence gene expression and regulatory pathways. This highlights the need for further investigation into the genomic mechanisms determining convergent evolution.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent