The First Pan-American Collegiate Conference

Description
In this project we explored the possibility of creating an international student festival here at ASU through interviews and research. We compiled together everything that would be needed to run such an event efficiently and properly.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

THE DINÉ BOARDING SCHOOL EXPERIENCE IN THE SOUTHWEST AND DINÉ RESILIENCE

Description
The boarding school system heavily impacted the structure and mental wellness of the Diné (Navajo) Nation, and these effects can still be felt today across Indian country in the Southwest. To this day, the general public is not fully aware

The boarding school system heavily impacted the structure and mental wellness of the Diné (Navajo) Nation, and these effects can still be felt today across Indian country in the Southwest. To this day, the general public is not fully aware of how much the Diné community has suffered from this system. Generally, in American history books, you will not find a chapter on the Trail of Tears or the Long Walk, which are devastating moments in history of the tribal communities affected. Nor will you find a chapter on boarding schools and the founding of the Carlisle Indian School which shaped the standard for American educational systems. The stories of the boarding school system and the forced assimilation of indigenous communities are not common knowledge in mainstream society. Many of these stories do not exist outside of Indigenous communities. The purpose of this thesis is to identify who were the perpetrators of the boarding school system and who were the victims, while proving that Indigenous people today are still closely connected to their culture and were not completely assimilated. This thesis will identify how boarding school trauma impacted the Diné people of the Navajo tribe and Indigenous peoples across the southwest region between the Four Sacred Mountains: Mount Blanca in south-central Colorado, Mount Taylor in Grants, New Mexico, the San Francisco peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona, and Mount Hesperus near Durango, Colorado. The Diné concepts of K’é and Hózhó are discussed as methods of survivance employed by Diné boarding school survivors and their descendants.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

The Utilization of Cryptotephra to Refine the Age Model at Archaeological Site Kathu Pan 6

Description
Cryptotephra (microscopic volcanic ash) has had significant contributions towards constructing and refining age models and correlating archaeological sites for decades. This thesis will report on cryptotephra from the archaeological site of Kathu Pan, specifically from sinkhole 6, located on the

Cryptotephra (microscopic volcanic ash) has had significant contributions towards constructing and refining age models and correlating archaeological sites for decades. This thesis will report on cryptotephra from the archaeological site of Kathu Pan, specifically from sinkhole 6, located on the southern edge of the Kalahari basin in the Northern Cape of South Africa. I will investigate the potential of cryptotephra from the Holocene layers of Kathu Pan (KP6) to test the current age model and source it to a specific region and a specific eruption. Both of the samples in this study, kp6-55-70 and kp6-75-90, are high silica rhyolites that date to the Holocene. Based on the geochemical findings, both samples have potential to be sourced from the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Guatemala, Indonesia, and New Zealand. The primary sourcing was focused on the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Turkana Basin in Kenya. Evidence suggests that kp6-75-90 is likely to have originated from the Turkana basin, meanwhile kp6-55-70 requires further sourcing in order to confidently correlate it to a region and an eruption. Further research needs to be completed in order to refine the age model at Kathu Pan 6.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Alexander’s Indian Campaign as an Example of Arrian’s Credibility

Description
Within the last 50 years, there has been an increase in criticism against Arrian and his work on Alexander the Great. Alexander's Indian campaign is the perfect example for a defense of Arrian's credibility as a historian. Arrian approaches Alexander's

Within the last 50 years, there has been an increase in criticism against Arrian and his work on Alexander the Great. Alexander's Indian campaign is the perfect example for a defense of Arrian's credibility as a historian. Arrian approaches Alexander's Indian campaign by acknowledging his own biases and disclosing his shortcomings as a historian, making him the best source we have on Alexander.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Navajo (Diné) Viewpoints on Traditional Medicine, Western Medicine, and the Intersection

Description
Background: In Navajo (Diné) populations, the two main forms of medicine that people use include traditional Diné medicine and Western medicine. Traditional medicine can be understood primarily through the concept of maintaining Hózhó or “balance”, while Western medicine is defined through

Background: In Navajo (Diné) populations, the two main forms of medicine that people use include traditional Diné medicine and Western medicine. Traditional medicine can be understood primarily through the concept of maintaining Hózhó or “balance”, while Western medicine is defined through the use of scientific evidence-based techniques and research. The reasons and barriers to using each form of medicine respectively are varied depending on aspects such as accessibility, familiarity, trust, or cost. Overall, there is a current lack of community viewpoints in regards to past examples of the intersection between traditional and Western medicine. This thesis examines reasons behind why Diné individuals use traditional Diné medicine and Western medicine respectively, and their viewpoints on the potential intersection. Methods: An anonymous online survey was distributed via snowball sampling from November 2023 to February 2024 after obtaining ASU IRB approval. It consisted of questions focused on demographics, use of traditional medicine, use of Western medicine, and opinion on the intersection between traditional and Western medicine. Statistical analysis and emerging themes were then performed and noted respectively. Results: There were a total of 15 responses to the online survey. A majority of participants previously used traditional medicine (80%), while all had previously used Western medicine (100%). There was a similar level of satisfaction and perceived efficiency for each, averages ranging from 3.8 to 4.0 respectively on a scale of 1 to 5. Many respondents used traditional medicine for more cultural and spiritual/mental health reasons, while many used Western medicine for more physical health reasons. Cost was the main barrier for each. Participants showed overall positive receptibility to potential intersections, but there was some hesitance in regards to scenarios where Western providers recommended traditional medicine use. Conclusion: Many reasons and barriers behind participant use of traditional and Western medicine were reflective of what was found in the literature review. The overall frequency of use, satisfaction, and efficiency can be further understood by a majority of participants living outside the Navajo Nation for long periods of time. The use of traditional medicine also made participants feel more connected to their culture, which can also contribute to the high levels of satisfaction/efficiency for traditional medicine. Interestingly, cost was found to be the primary barrier of each, which indicates room for growth in both respective fields to increase patient use. There was overall positive receptiveness to a possible intersection for delivery methods of medicine which indicates an overall desire to maintain Hózhó and holistic health, however the type of questions and recommendations made by respective providers needs to be done with care. This type of intersection should continue to be explored through community driven discussion and creativity in future studies.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Utilizing Human METTL16 as a Biotechnical Tool: Investigating the Terminal Adenosine in mRNA

Description
This project aims to tackle two perspectives: to design and express an enzyme that can perform single-molecule modifications for identification, and to determine the inclusion of the last adenosine in mature mRNAs within the metazoan, Caenorhabditis elegans. Starting with the

This project aims to tackle two perspectives: to design and express an enzyme that can perform single-molecule modifications for identification, and to determine the inclusion of the last adenosine in mature mRNAs within the metazoan, Caenorhabditis elegans. Starting with the first perspective, the enzymatic group that was utilized was methyltransferases. Methyltransferases have gained great interest in biotechnology and academia due to their ability to make single-molecule modifications to a wide variety of biomolecules, ranging from proteins to RNA. Of these methyltransferases, the subset that has the greatest interest for this study are RNA methyltransferases. Of the known RNA methyltransferases, human METTL16 was chosen for this project, due to its ability to modify adenosines at the N6 position (m6A), specificity for its consensus motif, and its promise in chimeric enzymatic complexes. As a result of these properties, this study looks to design METTl16-based complexes for the purpose of identifying single nucleotides in RNA. The second perspective involves pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR). Cleavage of pre-mRNAs within C.elegans appears to prefer an adenosine, leading to the term “terminal adenosine” (terminal-A). Since RNA cleavage and polyadenylation is highly conserved across metazoans, we can utilize the model system, C. elegans, to apply our findings to humans. Utilizing METTL16’s ability to modify adenosines, it is theorized that it may be possible to modify the terminal-A in vivo within C. elegans. To confirm the functionality and utilization of METTL16, a novel methodology is currently being developed called the terminal adenosine methylation (TAM) assay. The TAM assay takes advantage of METTL16’s N-terminal RNA binding domain (RBD) and methyltransferase domain – called the “core” – to methylate the terminal adenosine of probe mRNA transcripts prior to cleavage in vivo. To determine if the adenosine is present within mature mRNAs, sequencing will determine if there is a m6A present, confirming that CPSF-3 cleaves either upstream or downstream of the terminal-A. Ultimately, this project focuses on designing METTL16 complexes for mRNA modification, testing the functionality of these constructs in vitro, and developing transgenic C. elegans strains to express the METTL16 complexes. The bioconjugation capabilities of RNA methyltransferases allow for concepts such as the TAM assay to be viable, as well as make way for future prospects of methyltransferases as a biotechnical tool.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Expanding on “Uracil-DNA glycosylase efficiency is modulated by substrate rigidity”

Description
Misincorporation of uracil bases into DNA can lead to mutations after transcription. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is an enzyme that removes uracil bases from DNA, leaving an apurinic/apyrimidinic site. Different efficiencies of uracil base removal by UDG have been observed at

Misincorporation of uracil bases into DNA can lead to mutations after transcription. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is an enzyme that removes uracil bases from DNA, leaving an apurinic/apyrimidinic site. Different efficiencies of uracil base removal by UDG have been observed at different sites in DNA. A previous study found that UDG has a higher specificity constant for DNA sequences that are more flexible, specifically that those with uracil in a context of thymine adjacent on the 5’ side and adenine adjacent on the 3’ side (TUA sequence) bound UDG better than those with an adenine adjacent on the 5’ side and thymine adjacent on the 3’ side (AUT sequence) context. The purpose of this study is to expand the previous one by determining whether the ratios observed between TUA and AUT specificity constants within DNA sequences that are otherwise the same are also observed across a third sequence context that was not included in the first study. The hypothesis that same ratio would be observed is somewhat supported as the new sequence has a specificity constant of 1.24±0.043 ✕ 107 M-1s-1. However, conclusions to be drawn from this are limited by the wide margin of error seen among trials of the same concentrations.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Curanderismo: A Cultural and Biochemical Approach to Latin American Natural Healing

Description
Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand

Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand which products are commonly sold, what they are used to treat, and the cultural significance behind the practice. After purchasing a number of products from each yerberia, a literature analysis of potential biochemical pathways was conducted to determine if these products have efficacy in what they treat. While potential pathways were found for a number of the products, it has been determined that further clinical research must be conducted to state whether these products are effective in treatment.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Curanderismo: A Cultural and Biochemical Approach to Latin American Natural Healing

Description
Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand

Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand which products are commonly sold, what they are used to treat, and the cultural significance behind the practice. After purchasing a number of products from each yerberia, a literature analysis of potential biochemical pathways was conducted to determine if these products have efficacy in what they treat. While potential pathways were found for a number of the products, it has been determined that further clinical research must be conducted to state whether these products are effective in treatment.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Curanderismo: A Cultural and Biochemical Approach to Latin American Natural Healing

Description
Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand

Curanderismo can be defined as a blend between ancient Aztec natural healing methods and modern day Catholicism. Today, it is practiced through various techniques, which can be observed in yerberias. Upon visiting these yerberias, the attendants were interviewed to understand which products are commonly sold, what they are used to treat, and the cultural significance behind the practice. After purchasing a number of products from each yerberia, a literature analysis of potential biochemical pathways was conducted to determine if these products have efficacy in what they treat. While potential pathways were found for a number of the products, it has been determined that further clinical research must be conducted to state whether these products are effective in treatment.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent