Shock loading produces a compressive stress pulse with steep gradients in density, temperature, and pressure that are also often modeled as discontinuities. When a material is subject to these dynamic (shock) loading conditions, fracture and deformation patterns due to spall damage can arise. Spallation is a dynamic material failure that is caused by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids, with possible ejection of the surface of the material. Intrinsic defects, such as grain boundaries are the preferred initiation sites of spall damage in high purity materials.
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- Doctoral Dissertation Mechanical Engineering 2020