Matching Items (31)

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Evaluation of surface roughness evolution during fatigue damage in metals under multiaxial loading via optical measurements

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Fatigue damage accumulation under multiaxial loading conditions is an important practical problem for which there is a need to collect additional experimental data to calibrate and validate models. In this

Fatigue damage accumulation under multiaxial loading conditions is an important practical problem for which there is a need to collect additional experimental data to calibrate and validate models. In this work, a sample with a special geometry capable of producing biaxial stresses while undergoing uniaxial load was fabricated and tested successfully and used, along with standard dogbone samples, to monitor the evolution of surface roughness development under cyclic loading using optical microscopy. In addition, a Michelson interferometer was successfully designed, built and tested that can be used to monitor surface roughness for lower levels of load than those used in this work. Results of testing and characterization in 2024-T3 samples tested at a maximum stress slightly below their yield strength and load ratio ~ 0.1 indicate that most of the surface roughness development under cyclic loads occurs on the second half of the fatigue, with the bulk of it close to failure. However, samples with load axes perpendicular to the rolling direction showed earlier development of roughness, which correlated with shorter fatigue lives and the expected anisotropy of strength in the material.

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  • 2021-05

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Numerical Study of Material Strength Effects on Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Dynamically-loaded Samples

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Measuring the dynamic strength of a material based on stress and strain data is challenging due to the diculty in recording strain and stress under the short times and large

Measuring the dynamic strength of a material based on stress and strain data is challenging due to the diculty in recording strain and stress under the short times and large loads typical of dynamic events, such as impact and shock loading. The research involved in this study aims to perform nite element simulations for a new experimental method that can provide information on material dynamic strength, which is crucial for many engineering applications. In this method, a shock wave is applied to a metallic sample with a perturbed surface, i.e, one with periodic ripples machined or etched on the surface. The speed and magnitude of the change of am- plitude of the ripples are recorded. It is known that these parameters are functions of both geometry and material strength. The experimental data are compared with the simulation results produced. The dynamic yield strength of a material is taken to be the same as the strength used in simulations when a close match is found. The simulations have produced results that closely matched the experimental data and predicted the dynamic yield strength of metallic samples and have led to the discov- ery of a new experimental technique to lower the impact velocity required to induce amplitude changes in surface perturbations under shock loading. Thus, shock experi- ments to measure strength using surface perturbations will become easier to conduct and span a wider range of conditions. However, the existing simulation models are not adequate to examine the relations among hardening behavior and the change of amplitude and velocity on the sample surface. Thus, the models should be further modied to study dierent material hardening behaviors under dynamic loadings.

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  • 2014-12

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Finite Element Analysis of Microstructural Weak and Strong Links for Shock-Induced Damage in Metallic Materials

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Understanding damage evolution, particularly as it relates to local nucleation and growth kinetics of spall failure in metallic materials subjected to shock loading, is critical to national security. This work

Understanding damage evolution, particularly as it relates to local nucleation and growth kinetics of spall failure in metallic materials subjected to shock loading, is critical to national security. This work uses computational modeling to elucidate what characteristics have the highest impact on damage localization at the microstructural level in metallic materials, since knowledge of these characteristics is critical to improve these materials. The numerical framework consists of a user-defined material model implemented in a user subroutine run in ABAQUS/Explicit that takes into account crystal plasticity, grain boundary effects, void nucleation and initial growth, and both isotropic and kinematic hardening to model incipient spall. Finite element simulations were performed on copper bicrystal models to isolate the boundary effects between two grains. Two types of simulations were performed in this work: experimentally verified cases in order to validate the constitutive model as well as idealized cases in an attempt to determine the microstructural characteristic that define weakest links in terms of spall damage. Grain boundary effects on damage localization were studied by varying grain boundary orientation in respect to the shock direction and the crystallographic properties of each grain in the bicrystal. Varying these parameters resulted in a mismatch in Taylor factor across the grain boundary and along the shock direction. The experimentally verified cases are models of specific damage sites found from flyer plate impact tests on copper multicrystals in which the Taylor factor mismatch across the grain boundary and along the shock direction are both high or both low. For the idealized cases, grain boundary orientation and crystallography of the grains are chosen such that the Taylor factor mismatch in the grain boundary normal and along the shock direction are maximized or minimized. A perpendicular grain boundary orientation in respect to the shock direction maximizes Taylor factor mismatch, while a parallel grain boundary minimizes the mismatch. Furthermore, it is known that <1 1 1> crystals have the highest Taylor factor, while <0 0 1> has nearly the lowest Taylor factor. The permutation of these extremes for mismatch in the grain boundary normal and along the shock direction results in four idealized cases that were studied for this work. Results of the simulations demonstrate that the material model is capable of predicting damage localization, as it has been able to reproduce damage sites found experimentally. However, these results are qualitative since further calibration is still required to produce quantitatively accurate results. Moreover, comparisons of results for void nucleation rate and void growth rate suggests that void nucleation is more influential in the total void volume fraction for bicrystals with high property mismatch across the interface, suggesting that nucleation is the dominant characteristic in the propagation of damage in the material. Further work in recalibrating the simulation parameters and modeling different bicrystal orientations must be done to verify these results.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Local Mechanical Behavior of Hastelloy-X at High Temperatures and Its Relationship to Failure

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The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of

The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of interest to the company AORA because its strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures is directly applicable to their needs in a hybrid concentrated solar module. The literature review shows that the microstructure will produce different carbides at various temperatures, which can be beneficial to the strength of the alloy. These precipitates are found along the grain boundaries and act as pins that limit dislocation flow, as well as grain boundary sliding, and improve the rupture strength of the material. Over time, harmful precipitates form which counteract the strengthening effect of the carbides and reduce rupture strength, leading to failure. A combination of indentation and microstructure mapping was used in an effort to link local mechanical behavior to microstructure variability. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were initially used as a means to characterize the microstructure prior to testing. Then, a series of room temperature Vickers hardness tests at 50 and 500 gram-force were used to evaluate the variation in the local response as a function of indentation size. The room temperature study concluded that both the hardness and standard deviation increased at lower loads, which is consistent with the grain size distribution seen in the microstructure scan. The material was then subjected to high temperature spherical indentation. Load-displacement curves were essential in evaluating the decrease in strength of the material with increasing temperature. Through linear regression of the unloading portion of the curve, the plastic deformation was determined and compared at different temperatures as a qualitative method to evaluate local strength.

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  • 2015-05

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Kinetics of Void Nucleation and Growth at Grain Boundaries on Shock Loaded Copper Bicrystals

Description

Shock loading produces a compressive stress pulse with steep gradients in density, temperature, and pressure that are also often modeled as discontinuities. When a material is subject to these dynamic

Shock loading produces a compressive stress pulse with steep gradients in density, temperature, and pressure that are also often modeled as discontinuities. When a material is subject to these dynamic (shock) loading conditions, fracture and deformation patterns due to spall damage can arise. Spallation is a dynamic material failure that is caused by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids, with possible ejection of the surface of the material. Intrinsic defects, such as grain boundaries are the preferred initiation sites of spall damage in high purity materials. The focus of this research is to study the phenomena that cause void nucleation and growth at a particular grain boundary (GB), chosen to maximize spall damage localization.

Bicrystal samples were shock loaded using flyer-plates via light gas gun and direct laser ablation. Stress, pulse duration, and crystal orientation along the shock direction were varied for a fixed boundary misorientation to determine thresholds for void nucleation and coalescence as functions of these parameters. Pressures for gas gun experiments ranged from 2 to 5 GPa, while pressures for laser ablation experiments varied from 17 to 25 GPa. Samples were soft recovered to perform damage characterization using electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a 14% difference in the thresholds for void nucleation and coalescence between samples with different orientations along the shock direction, which were affected by pulse duration and stress level. Fractography on boundaries with strong damage localization showed many small voids, indicating they experience rapid nucleation, causing early coalescence. Composition analysis was also performed to determine the effect of impurities on damage evolution. Results showed that higher levels of impurities led to more damage. ABAQUS/Explicit models were developed to simulate flyer-plate impact and void growth with the same crystal orientations and experimental conditions. Results are able to match the damage seen in each grain of the target experimentally. The Taylor Factor mismatch at the boundary can also be observed in the model with the higher Taylor Factor grain exhibiting more damage.

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  • 2020

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Crack Injection as a Mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking

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Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon

Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon referred to as stress-corrosion cracking. Stress-corrosion cracking is the brittle failure of a normally ductile material occurring in a corrosive environment under a tensile stress. Silver-gold can experience this type of brittle fracture for a range of compositions. The corrosion process in this alloy results in a bicontinuous nanoscale morphology composed of gold-rich ligaments and voids often referred to as nanoporous gold. Experiments have shown that monolithic nanoporous gold can sustain high speed cracks which can then be injected into parent-phase alloy. This work compares nanoporous gold created from ordered and disordered copper-gold using digital image analysis and electron backscatter diffraction. Nanoporous gold from both disordered copper-gold and silver-gold, and ordered copper-gold show that grain orientation and shape remain largely unchanged by the dealloying process. Comparing the morphology of the nanoporous gold from ordered and disordered copper-gold with digital image analysis, minimal differences are found between the two and it is concluded that they are not statistically significant. This reveals the robust nature of nanoporous gold morphology against small variations in surface diffusion and parent-phase crystal structure.
Then the corrosion penetration down the grain boundary is compared to the depth of crack injections in polycrystal silver-gold. Based on statistical comparison, the crack-injections penetrate into the parent-phase grain boundary beyond the corrosion-induced porosity. To compare crack injections to stress-corrosion cracking, single crystal silver-gold samples are employed. Due to the cleavage-like nature of the fracture surfaces, electron backscatter diffraction is possible and employed to compare the crystallography of stress-corrosion crack surfaces and crack-injection surfaces. From the crystallographic similarities of these fracture surfaces, it is concluded that stress-corrosion can occur via a series of crack-injection events. This relationship between crack injections and stress corrosion cracking is further examined using electrochemical data from polycrystal silver-gold samples during stress-corrosion cracking. The results support the idea that crack injection is a mechanism for stress-corrosion cracking.

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  • 2020

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Multiresolution Coarse-Grained Modeling of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Polyurea Elastomer

Description

Polyurea is a highly versatile material used in coatings and armor systems to protect against extreme conditions such as ballistic impact, cavitation erosion, and blast loading. However, the relationships between

Polyurea is a highly versatile material used in coatings and armor systems to protect against extreme conditions such as ballistic impact, cavitation erosion, and blast loading. However, the relationships between microstructurally-dependent deformation mechanisms and the mechanical properties of polyurea are not yet fully understood, especially under extreme conditions. In this work, multi-scale coarse-grained models are developed to probe molecular dynamics across the wide range of time and length scales that these fundamental deformation mechanisms operate. In the first of these models, a high-resolution coarse-grained model of polyurea is developed, where similar to united-atom models, hydrogen atoms are modeled implicitly. This model was trained using a modified iterative Boltzmann inversion method that dramatically reduces the number of iterations required. Coarse-grained simulations using this model demonstrate that multiblock systems evolve to form a more interconnected hard phase, compared to the more interrupted hard phase composed of distinct ribbon-shaped domains found in diblock systems. Next, a reactive coarse-grained model is developed to simulate the influence of the difference in time scales for step-growth polymerization and phase segregation in polyurea. Analysis of the simulated cured polyurea systems reveals that more rapid reaction rates produce a smaller diameter ligaments in the gyroidal hard phase as well as increased covalent bonding connecting the hard domain ligaments as evidenced by a larger fraction of bridging segments and larger mean radius of gyration of the copolymer chains. The effect that these processing-induced structural variations have on the mechanical properties of the polymer was tested by simulating uniaxial compression, which revealed that the higher degree of hard domain connectivity leads to a 20% increase in the flow stress. A hierarchical multiresolution framework is proposed to fully link coarse-grained molecular simulations across a broader range of time scales, in which a family of coarse-grained models are developed. The models are connected using an incremental reverse–mapping scheme allowing for long time scale dynamics simulated at a highly coarsened resolution to be passed all the way to an atomistic representation.

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  • 2020

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Finite element analysis of micro-cantilever beam experiments in UO2

Description

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict its performance. In particular, evaluating mechanical properties, such as elasticity, plasticity and creep at sub-grain length scales is key to developing this understanding as well as building multi-scale models of fuel behavior with predicting capabilities. In this work, modeling techniques were developed to study effects of microstructure on Young’s modulus, which was selected as a key representative property that affects overall mechanical behavior, using experimental data obtained from micro-cantilever bending testing as benchmarks. Beam theory was firstly introduced to calculate Young's modulus of UO2 from the experimental data and then three-dimensional finite element models of the micro-cantilever beams were constructed to simulate bending tests in UO2 at room temperature. The influence of the pore distribution was studied to explain the discrepancy between predicted values and experimental results. Results indicate that results of tests are significantly affected by porosity given that both pore size and spacing in the samples are of the order of the micro-beam dimensions. Microstructure reconstruction was conducted with images collected from three-dimensional serial sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and pore clusters were placed at different locations along the length of the beam. Results indicate that the presence of pore clusters close to the substrate, i.e., the clamp of the micro-cantilever beam, has the strongest effect on load-deflection behavior, leading to a reduction of stiffness that is the largest for any location of the pore cluster. Furthermore, it was also found from both numerical and i

analytical models that pore clusters located towards the middle of the span and close to the end of the beam only have a very small effect on the load-deflection behavior, and it is concluded that better estimates of Young's modulus can be obtained from micro- cantilever experiments by using microstructurally explicit models that account for porosity in about one half of the beam length close to the clamp. This, in turn, provides an avenue to simplify micro-scale experiments and their analysis.

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  • 2015

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Three dimensional characterization of microstructural effects on spall damage in shocked polycrystalline copper

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. The length scale of damage with

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity, which is the focus of this research. Shock loading experiments were conducted via flyer-plate impact tests for pressures of 2-6 GPa and strain rates of 105/s on copper polycrystals of varying thermomechanical processing conditions. Serial cross sectioning of recovered target disks was performed along with electron microscopy, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and 3-D X-ray tomogrpahy (XRT) to gain 2-D and 3-D information on the spall plane and surrounding microstructure. Statistics on grain boundaries (GB) containing damage were obtained from 2-D data and GBs of misorientations 25° and 50° were found to have the highest probability to contain damage in as-received (AR), heat treated (HT), and fully recrystallized (FR) microstructures, while {111} Σ3 GBs were globally strong. The AR microstructure’s probability peak was the most pronounced indicating GB strength is the dominant factor for damage nucleation. 3-D XRT data was used to digitally render the spall planes of the AR, HT, and FR microstructures. From shape fitting the voids to ellipsoids, it was found that the AR microstructure contained greater than 55% intergranular damage, whereas the HT and FR microstructures contained predominantly transgranular and coalesced damage modes, respectively. 3-D reconstructions of large volume damage sites in shocked Cu multicrystals showed preference for damage nucleation at GBs between adjacent grains of a high Taylor factor mismatches as well as an angle between the shock direction and the GB physical normal of ~30°-45°. 3-D FIB sectioning of individual voids led to the discovery of uniform plastic zones ~25-50% the size of the void diameter and plastic deformation directions were characterized via local average misorientation maps. Incipient transgranular voids revealed from the sectioning process were present in grains of high Taylor factors along the shock direction, which is expected as materials with a low Taylor factor along the shock direction are susceptible to growth due their accomodation of plastic deformation. Fabrication of square waves using photolithography and chemical etching was developed to study the nature of plasticity at GBs away from the spall plane. Grains oriented close to <0 1 1> had half the residual amplitudes than grains oriented close to <0 0 1>.

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  • 2015

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Effects of Phase Transformations and Dynamic Material Strength on Hydrodynamic Instability Evolution in Metals

Description

Hydrodynamic phenomena such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities can be described by exponential/linear growth of surface perturbations at a bimaterial interface when subjected to constant/impulsive acceleration. A

Hydrodynamic phenomena such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities can be described by exponential/linear growth of surface perturbations at a bimaterial interface when subjected to constant/impulsive acceleration. A challenge in designing systems to mitigate or exploit these effects is the lack of accurate material models at large dynamic strain rates and pressures. In particular, little stress-strain constitutive information at large strain rates and pressures is available for transient material phases formed at high pressures, and the continuum effect the phase transformation process has on the instability evolution. In this work, a phase-aware isotropic strength model is developed and partially validated with a novel RM-based instability experiment in addition to existing data from the literature. With the validated material model additional simulations are performed to provide insight into to the role that robust material constitutive behavior (e.g., pressure, temperature, rate dependence) has on RM instability and how RM instability experiments can be used to characterize and validated expected material behavior. For phase aware materials, particularly iron in this work, the simulations predict a strong dependence on the Atwood number that single phase materials do not have. At Atwood numbers close to unity, and pressures in the high pressure stability region, the high pressure phase dominates the RM evolution. However, at Atwood numbers close to negative one, the RM evolution is only weakly affected by the high-pressure phase even for shocks well above the phase transformation threshold. In addition to RM evolution this work looks at the closely related shock front perturbation evolution. Existing analytical models for isentropic processes in gases and liquids are modified for metal equation of states and plastic behavior for the first time. It is found that the presence of a volume collapsing phase transformation with increased pressure causes shock front perturbations to decay sooner, while plastic strength has the opposite effect which is significantly different from the effect viscosity has. These results suggest additional experimental setups to validate material models, or relevant material parameters that can be optimized for system design objectives, e.g., minimize feed through perturbations in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

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Date Created
  • 2017