Matching Items (2)

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Kinetics of Void Nucleation and Growth at Grain Boundaries on Shock Loaded Copper Bicrystals

Description

Shock loading produces a compressive stress pulse with steep gradients in density, temperature, and pressure that are also often modeled as discontinuities. When a material is subject to these dynamic

Shock loading produces a compressive stress pulse with steep gradients in density, temperature, and pressure that are also often modeled as discontinuities. When a material is subject to these dynamic (shock) loading conditions, fracture and deformation patterns due to spall damage can arise. Spallation is a dynamic material failure that is caused by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids, with possible ejection of the surface of the material. Intrinsic defects, such as grain boundaries are the preferred initiation sites of spall damage in high purity materials. The focus of this research is to study the phenomena that cause void nucleation and growth at a particular grain boundary (GB), chosen to maximize spall damage localization.

Bicrystal samples were shock loaded using flyer-plates via light gas gun and direct laser ablation. Stress, pulse duration, and crystal orientation along the shock direction were varied for a fixed boundary misorientation to determine thresholds for void nucleation and coalescence as functions of these parameters. Pressures for gas gun experiments ranged from 2 to 5 GPa, while pressures for laser ablation experiments varied from 17 to 25 GPa. Samples were soft recovered to perform damage characterization using electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a 14% difference in the thresholds for void nucleation and coalescence between samples with different orientations along the shock direction, which were affected by pulse duration and stress level. Fractography on boundaries with strong damage localization showed many small voids, indicating they experience rapid nucleation, causing early coalescence. Composition analysis was also performed to determine the effect of impurities on damage evolution. Results showed that higher levels of impurities led to more damage. ABAQUS/Explicit models were developed to simulate flyer-plate impact and void growth with the same crystal orientations and experimental conditions. Results are able to match the damage seen in each grain of the target experimentally. The Taylor Factor mismatch at the boundary can also be observed in the model with the higher Taylor Factor grain exhibiting more damage.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Microstructural explicit simulation of grain boundary diffusion in depleted UO₂

Description

ABSTRACT The behavior of the fission products, as they are released from fission events during nuclear reaction, plays an important role in nuclear fuel performance. Fission product release can occur

ABSTRACT The behavior of the fission products, as they are released from fission events during nuclear reaction, plays an important role in nuclear fuel performance. Fission product release can occur through grain boundary (GB) at low burnups; therefore, this study simulates the mass transport of fission gases in a 2-D GB network to look into the effects of GB characteristics on this phenomenon, with emphasis on conditions that can lead to percolation. A finite element model was created based on the microstructure of a depleted UO2 sample characterized by Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD). The GBs were categorized into high (D2), low (D1) and bulk diffusivity (Dbulk) based on their misorientation angles and Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) types. The simulation was run using different diffusivity ratios (D2/Dbulk) ranging from 1 to 10^8. The model was set up in three ways: constant temperature case, temperature gradient effects and window methods that mimic the environments in a Light Water Reactor (LWR). In general, the formation of percolation paths was observed at a ratio higher than 10^4 in the measured GB network, which had a 68% fraction of high diffusivity GBs. The presence of temperature gradient created an uneven concentration distribution and decreased the overall mass flux. Finally, radial temperature and fission gas concentration profiles were obtained for a fuel pellet in operation using an approximate 1-D model. The 100 µm long microstructurally explicit model was used to simulate, to the scale of a real UO2 pellet, the mass transport at different radial positions, with boundary conditions obtained from the profiles. Stronger percolation effects were observed at the intermediate and periphery position of the pellet. The results also showed that highest mass flux happens at the edge of a pellet at steady state to accommodate for the sharp concentration drop.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011