Matching Items (46)

133215-Thumbnail Image.png

Dynamic Analysis of Mistuned Bladed Disks: Coupling Index and Amplification Factor

Description

Mistuning is defined as the blade-to-blade variation of bladed disks caused by slight changes in material or geometric properties; mistuned blades can cause significant increases in vibrational response. The primary goal of this thesis is to describe the relationship between

Mistuning is defined as the blade-to-blade variation of bladed disks caused by slight changes in material or geometric properties; mistuned blades can cause significant increases in vibrational response. The primary goal of this thesis is to describe the relationship between coupling index and amplification factors of mistuned bladed disks with various sets of parameters, targeting the veering zone. At around a coupling index of 0, the amplification factors tend to stay around 1. This is due to localization of energy, where no energy is "shared" between blades, and the response of mistuned blades remain at resonance. As coupling index increases, amplification factors reach a peak between coupling indices of 0.15 and 0.2, before experiencing a downward trend towards 1. As blade-to-disk interaction increases, more energy is "shared" across blades. This results in the upward trend of amplification factor as coupling index increases, until too much energy is "shared". Additionally, a reduced order model enriching-stripping process to match natural frequencies of Nastran simulations will be discussed. This thesis is a continuation of Saurav Sahoo's Master's thesis at Arizona State University, Approximate a-priori Estimation of the Response Amplification due to Geometric and Young's Modulus Mistuning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133979-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimal Co-Design of Structure Topology and Sensor Deployment for Balanced System Performance and Observability

Description

As technology increases in capability, its purposes can become multifaceted, meaning it must accomplish multiple requirements as opposed to just one. An example of said technology could be high speed airplane wings, which must be strong enough to withstand high

As technology increases in capability, its purposes can become multifaceted, meaning it must accomplish multiple requirements as opposed to just one. An example of said technology could be high speed airplane wings, which must be strong enough to withstand high loads, light enough to enable the aircraft to fly, and have enough thermal conductivity to withstand high temperatures. Two objectives in particular, topology and sensor deployment, are important for designing structures such as robots which need accurate sensor readings, known as observability. In an attempt to display how these two dissimilar objectives coincide with each other, a project was created around the idea of finding an optimum balance of both. This supposed state would allow the structure not only to remain strong and light but also to be monitored via sensors with a high degree of accuracy. The main focus of the project was to compare levels of observability of two known factors of input estimation error. The first system involves a structure that has been topologically optimized for compliance minimization, which increases input estimation error. The second system produces structures with random placements of sensors within the structure, which, as the average distance from load to sensor increases, induces input estimation error. These two changes in observability were compared to see which had a more direct effect. The main findings were that changes in topology had a much more direct effect over levels of observability than changes in sensor placement. Results also show that theoretical input estimation time is significantly reduced when compared to previous systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

129418-Thumbnail Image.png

Stochastic Modal Models of Slender Uncertain Curved Beams Preloaded Through Clamping

Description

This paper addresses the stochastic modeling of the stiffness matrix of slender uncertain curved beams that are forced fit into a clamped–clamped fixture designed for straight beams. Because of the misfit with the clamps, the final shape of the clamped–clamped

This paper addresses the stochastic modeling of the stiffness matrix of slender uncertain curved beams that are forced fit into a clamped–clamped fixture designed for straight beams. Because of the misfit with the clamps, the final shape of the clamped–clamped beams is not straight and they are subjected to an axial preload. Both of these features are uncertain given the uncertainty on the initial, undeformed shape of the beams and affect significantly the stiffness matrix associated with small motions around the clamped–clamped configuration. A modal model using linear modes of the straight clamped–clamped beam with a randomized stiffness matrix is employed to characterize the linear dynamic behavior of the uncertain beams. This stiffness matrix is modeled using a mixed nonparametric–parametric stochastic model in which the nonparametric (maximum entropy) component is used to model the uncertainty in final shape while the preload is explicitly, parametrically included in the stiffness matrix representation.

Finally, a maximum likelihood framework is proposed for the identification of the parameters associated with the uncertainty level and the mean model, or part thereof, using either natural frequencies only or natural frequencies and mode shape information of the beams around their final clamped–clamped state. To validate these concepts, three simulated, computational experiments were conducted within Nastran to produce populations of natural frequencies and mode shapes of uncertain slender curved beams after clamping. The three experiments differed from each other by the nature of the clamping condition in the in-plane direction. One experiment assumed a no-slip condition (zero in-plane displacement), another a perfect slip (no in-plane force), while the third one invoked friction. The first two experiments gave distributions of frequencies with similar features while the latter one yielded a strong deterministic dependence of the frequencies on each other, a situation observed and explained recently and thus not considered further here. Then, the application of the stochastic modeling concepts to the no-slip simulated data was carried out and led to a good matching of the probability density functions of the natural frequencies and the modal components, even though this information was not used in the identification process. These results strongly suggest the applicability of the proposed stochastic model.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2015-01-06

129381-Thumbnail Image.png

Prediction of Displacement and Stress Fields of a Notched Panel With Geometric Nonlinearity by Reduced Order Modeling

Description

The focus of this investigation is on a first assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear geometric reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels with localized geometric defects, the case of a

The focus of this investigation is on a first assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear geometric reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels with localized geometric defects, the case of a notch serving to exemplify the analysis. It is first demonstrated that the reduced order model of the notched panel does indeed provide a close match of the displacement and stress fields obtained from full finite element analyses for moderately large static and dynamic responses (peak displacement of 2 and 4 thicknesses). As might be expected, the reduced order model of the virgin panel would also yield a close approximation of the displacement field but not of the stress one. These observations then lead to two “enrichment” techniques seeking to superpose the notch effects on the virgin panel stress field so that a reduced order model of the latter can be used. A very good prediction of the full finite element stresses, for both static and dynamic analyses, is achieved with both enrichments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-12-02

127840-Thumbnail Image.png

Reduced Order Level Modeling of Structure-Based Uncertainty on Fluid Forces for the Dynamics of Nearly-Straight Pipes

Description

This investigation is focused on the consideration of structural uncertainties in nearly-straight pipes conveying fluid and on the effects of these uncertainties on the dynamic behavior of the pipes. Of interest more specifically are the structural uncertainties which affect directly

This investigation is focused on the consideration of structural uncertainties in nearly-straight pipes conveying fluid and on the effects of these uncertainties on the dynamic behavior of the pipes. Of interest more specifically are the structural uncertainties which affect directly the fluid flow and its feedback on the structural response, i.e., uncertainties on/variations of the inner cross-section and curvature of the pipe. A finite element-based discovery effort is first carried out on randomly tapered straight pipes to understand how the uncertainty in inner cross-section affects the behavior of the pipes. It is found that the dominant effect originates from the variations of the exit flow speed, induced by the change in inner cross-section at the pipe end, with the uncertainty on the cross-section at other locations playing a secondary role. The development of a generic model of the uncertainty in fluid forces is next considered by proceeding directly at the level of modal models by randomizing simultaneously the appropriate mass, stiffness, and damping matrices. The maximum entropy framework is adopted to carry out the stochastic modeling of these matrices with appropriate symmetry constraints guaranteeing that the nature, e.g., divergence or flutter, of the bifurcation is preserved when introducing uncertainty. To achieve this property, it is proposed that the fluid related mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the stochastic reduced order model (ROM) all be determined from a single random matrix and a random variable. The predictions from this stochastic ROM are found to closely match the corresponding results obtained with the randomized finite element model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-09-12

152349-Thumbnail Image.png

Closed-form inverse kinematic solution for anthropomorphic motion in redundant robot arms

Description

As robots are increasingly migrating out of factories and research laboratories and into our everyday lives, they should move and act in environments designed for humans. For this reason, the need of anthropomorphic movements is of utmost importance. The objective

As robots are increasingly migrating out of factories and research laboratories and into our everyday lives, they should move and act in environments designed for humans. For this reason, the need of anthropomorphic movements is of utmost importance. The objective of this thesis is to solve the inverse kinematics problem of redundant robot arms that results to anthropomorphic configurations. The swivel angle of the elbow was used as a human arm motion parameter for the robot arm to mimic. The swivel angle is defined as the rotation angle of the plane defined by the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis that connects the shoulder and wrist joints. Using kinematic data recorded from human subjects during every-day life tasks, the linear sensorimotor transformation model was validated and used to estimate the swivel angle, given the desired end-effector position. Defining the desired swivel angle simplifies the kinematic redundancy of the robot arm. The proposed method was tested with an anthropomorphic redundant robot arm and the computed motion profiles were compared to the ones of the human subjects. This thesis shows that the method computes anthropomorphic configurations for the robot arm, even if the robot arm has different link lengths than the human arm and starts its motion at random configurations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

153941-Thumbnail Image.png

Role of defects interactions with embrittlement species in iron: a multiscale perspective

Description

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations and modeling results have led to various proposals for HE mechanisms. Therefore, to gain insights into HE mechanisms in iron, this dissertation aims to investigate several key issues involving HE such as: a) the incipient crack tip events; b) the cohesive strength of grain boundaries (GBs); c) the dislocation-GB interactions and d) the dislocation mobility.

The crack tip, which presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen segregation, was examined using atomistic methods and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion as sufficient concentration of hydrogen can alter the crack tip deformation mechanism. Results suggest that there is a plausible co-existence of the adsorption induced dislocation emission and hydrogen enhanced decohesion mechanisms. In the case of GB-hydrogen interaction, we observed that the segregation of hydrogen along the interface leads to a reduction in cohesive strength resulting in intergranular failure. A methodology was further developed to quantify the role of the GB structure on this behavior.

GBs play a fundamental role in determining the strengthening mechanisms acting as an impediment to the dislocation motion; however, the presence of an unsurmountable barrier for a dislocation can generate slip localization that could further lead to intergranular crack initiation. It was found that the presence of hydrogen increases the strain energy stored within the GB which could lead to a transition in failure mode. Finally, in the case of body centered cubic metals, understanding the complex screw dislocation motion is critical to the development of an accurate continuum description of the plastic behavior. Further, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to drastically alter the plastic deformation, but the precise role of hydrogen is still unclear. Thus, the role of hydrogen on the dislocation mobility was examined using density functional theory and atomistic simulations. Overall, this dissertation provides a novel atomic-scale understanding of the HE mechanism and development of multiscale tools for future endeavors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

153841-Thumbnail Image.png

A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

153731-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling and control of flapping wing micro aerial vehicles

Description

Interest in Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) research has surged over the past decade. MAVs offer new capabilities for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, site mapping, communications, search and rescue, etc. This thesis discusses key modeling and control aspects of flapping wing MAVs

Interest in Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) research has surged over the past decade. MAVs offer new capabilities for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, site mapping, communications, search and rescue, etc. This thesis discusses key modeling and control aspects of flapping wing MAVs in hover. A three degree of freedom nonlinear model is used to describe the flapping wing vehicle. Averaging theory is used to obtain a nonlinear average model. The equilibrium of this model is then analyzed. A linear model is then obtained to describe the vehicle near hover. LQR is used to as the main control system design methodology. It is used, together with a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm, to design a family multivariable control system for the MAV. Critical performance trade-offs are illuminated. Properties at both the plant output and input are examined. Very specific rules of thumb are given for control system design. The conservatism of the rules are also discussed. Issues addressed include

What should the control system bandwidth be vis--vis the flapping frequency (so that averaging the nonlinear system is valid)?

When is first order averaging sufficient? When is higher order averaging necessary?

When can wing mass be neglected and when does wing mass become critical to model?

This includes how and when the rules given can be tightened; i.e. made less conservative.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

151772-Thumbnail Image.png

Experimental study of pressure and main gas ingestion distributions in a model rotor-stator disk cavity

Description

Ingestion of high temperature mainstream gas into the rotor-stator cavities of a gas turbine is one of the major problems faced by the turbine designers. The ingested gas heats up rotor disks and induces higher thermal stresses on them, giving

Ingestion of high temperature mainstream gas into the rotor-stator cavities of a gas turbine is one of the major problems faced by the turbine designers. The ingested gas heats up rotor disks and induces higher thermal stresses on them, giving rise to durability concern. Ingestion is usually reduced by installing seals on the rotor and stator rims and by purging the disk cavity by secondary air bled from the compressor discharge. The geometry of the rim seals and the secondary air flow rate, together, influence the amount of gas that gets ingested into the cavities. Since the amount of secondary air bled off has a negative effect on the gas turbine thermal efficiency, one goal is to use the least possible amount of secondary air. This requires a good understanding of the flow and ingestion fields within a disk cavity. In the present study, the mainstream gas ingestion phenomenon has been experimentally studied in a model single-stage axial flow gas turbine. The turbine stage featured vanes and blades, and rim seals on both the rotor and stator. Additionally, the disk cavity contained a labyrinth seal radially inboard which effectively divided the cavity into a rim cavity and an inner cavity. Time-average static pressure measurements were obtained at various radial positions within the disk cavity, and in the mainstream gas path at three axial locations at the outer shroud spread circumferentially over two vane pitches. The time-average static pressure in the main gas path exhibited a periodic asymmetry following the vane pitch whose amplitude diminished with increasing distance from the vane trailing edge. The static pressure distribution increased with the secondary air flow rate within the inner cavity but was found to be almost independent of it in the rim cavity. Tracer gas (CO2) concentration measurements were conducted to determine the sealing effectiveness of the rim seals against main gas ingestion. For the rim cavity, the sealing effectiveness increased with the secondary air flow rate. Within the inner cavity however, this trend reversed -this may have been due to the presence of rotating low-pressure flow structures inboard of the labyrinth seal.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013