Matching Items (38)

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Structural stability and energetics of grain boundary triple junctions in face centered cubic materials

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We present a systematic study to elucidate the role of triple junctions (TJs) and their constituent grain boundaries on the structural stability of nanocrystalline materials. Using atomistic simulations along with

We present a systematic study to elucidate the role of triple junctions (TJs) and their constituent grain boundaries on the structural stability of nanocrystalline materials. Using atomistic simulations along with the nudge elastic band calculations, we explored the atomic structural and thermodynamic properties of TJs in three different fcc materials. We found that the magnitude of excess energy at a TJ was directly related to the atomic density of the metal. Further, the vacancy binding and migration energetics in the vicinity of the TJ were examined as they play a crucial role in the structural stability of NC materials. The resolved line tension which takes into account the stress buildup at the TJ was found to be a good measure in predicting the vacancy binding tendency near the TJ. The activation energy for vacancy migration along the TJ was directly correlated with the measured excess energy. Finally, we show that the resistance for vacancy diffusion increased for TJs with larger excess stored energy and the defect mobility at some TJs is slower than their constituent GBs. Hence, our results have general implications on the diffusional process in NC materials and provide new insight into stabilizing NC materials with tailored TJs.

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  • 2015-03-03

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Quantifying Microstructural Effects on the Strain Localization During Fatigue

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The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium

The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium has been selected due to its desirable properties and applicability in several engineering fields. Both samples are polished and etched in order to visualize and characterize the microstructure and its features. The samples then undergo strain-controlled fatigue tests for several thousand cycles. Throughout testing, images of the samples are taken at zero and maximum load for DIC analysis. The DIC results can be used to study the local strains of the samples. The DIC analysis performed on the CP-Ti sample and presented in this study will be used to understand how the addition of oxygen in the Ti-O impacts fatigue response. The outcome of this research can be used to develop long-lasting, high strength materials.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

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In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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  • 2016-05

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Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy to Induce a Protective Corrosion Resistant Layer

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This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was

This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was performed on AA7075 samples polished to 80-grit initial surface roughness. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used to characterize the corrosion behavior of samples before and after SMAT. Electrochemical tests indicated an improved corrosion resistance after application of SMAT process. The observed improvements in corrosion properties are potentially due to microstructural changes in the material surface induced by SMAT which encouraged the formation of a passive oxide layer. Further testing and research are required to understand the corrosion related effects of cryogenic SMAT and initial-surface finish as the COVID-19 pandemic inhibited experimentation plans.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Microstructural Evolution and Corrosion Behavior of Chromium Coated Aluminum 7075

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Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) is a process used to coat metallic alloy surfaces with a nanocrystallized layer via mechanical abrasion. SMAT has garnered a significant amount of interest from

Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) is a process used to coat metallic alloy surfaces with a nanocrystallized layer via mechanical abrasion. SMAT has garnered a significant amount of interest from the scientific community as a surface treatment technique due to the ability of this fine grain top layer to provide several benefits to its constituent alloy, namely significantly higher hardness, fatigue strength, and most pertinently, greatly improved corrosion resistance. Emerging research suggests that SMAT can also be used to apply powder coatings onto target substrates. A given substrate can be installed in a ball mill, where stainless steel balls coated with pure elemental powder deliver sustained impact onto the substrate, embedding the powders onto its surface. This paper will explore the process of coating aluminum 7075 coating with chromium powder via SMAT, and the effects doing so will have on the corrosion resistance properties of the aluminum 7075. Traditionally, high-strength alloys have been treated with chromium via the process of electroplating, where the alloys are subjected to a hexavalent chromium plating procedure that is known to risk releasing toxic carcinogens into the environment. Coating these alloys with SMAT could minimize such negative externalities, while yielding benefits unique to the SMAT coating process itself. Baseline corrosion testing reveals that the corrosion resistance properties of the aluminum 7075 improved marginally when exposed to SMAT without the addition of any chromium powder. A literature review conducted in this paper of select studies on SMAT coating also demonstrates that material properties intrinsic to aluminum 7075 and pure chromium powder, as well as interaction effects occurring between aluminum and chromium when subjected to mechanical alloying, could enable the SMAT coating of aluminum 7075 with chromium to result in greatly enhanced corrosion resistance properties. While this was not accomplished within the duration of the Honors Project due to logistical difficulties brought forth by the COVID-19 epidemic, the baseline corrosion testing performed, as well as the literature review of studies directly relevant to the matter, should hopefully provide some information of value in any future exploration of the topic.

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  • 2020-05

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Evaluation of surface roughness evolution during fatigue damage in metals under multiaxial loading via optical measurements

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Fatigue damage accumulation under multiaxial loading conditions is an important practical problem for which there is a need to collect additional experimental data to calibrate and validate models. In this

Fatigue damage accumulation under multiaxial loading conditions is an important practical problem for which there is a need to collect additional experimental data to calibrate and validate models. In this work, a sample with a special geometry capable of producing biaxial stresses while undergoing uniaxial load was fabricated and tested successfully and used, along with standard dogbone samples, to monitor the evolution of surface roughness development under cyclic loading using optical microscopy. In addition, a Michelson interferometer was successfully designed, built and tested that can be used to monitor surface roughness for lower levels of load than those used in this work. Results of testing and characterization in 2024-T3 samples tested at a maximum stress slightly below their yield strength and load ratio ~ 0.1 indicate that most of the surface roughness development under cyclic loads occurs on the second half of the fatigue, with the bulk of it close to failure. However, samples with load axes perpendicular to the rolling direction showed earlier development of roughness, which correlated with shorter fatigue lives and the expected anisotropy of strength in the material.

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  • 2021-05

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Modeling of Engineered Shock Absorbing Materials

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The main field of study research through this project is to study the effect of history of deformation in materials subjected to complex loading, useful for producing lightweight alloys and

The main field of study research through this project is to study the effect of history of deformation in materials subjected to complex loading, useful for producing lightweight alloys and composites optimized for absorbing shock and impact. This is accomplished by creating a digital model of a system in which the material undergoes tension and compression through colliding bars. The results show that the system generated is accurate when compared to real tests, so the program used to create the model can be used in the future for simulated tests using different materials or applied loads.

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  • 2014-05

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The Effects of Hydrostatic Loading on Hydrogen Diffusion in Nickel

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Hydrogen diffusion causes brittleness and cracking at stresses below the yield strength of susceptible metals. The effects of hydrostatic loading on the rate of hydrogen diffusion is relatively unknown. A

Hydrogen diffusion causes brittleness and cracking at stresses below the yield strength of susceptible metals. The effects of hydrostatic loading on the rate of hydrogen diffusion is relatively unknown. A study of these effects will provide a better understanding in the design process for accounting for the resulting hydrogen embrittlement.

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  • 2013-05

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Local Mechanical Behavior of Hastelloy-X at High Temperatures and Its Relationship to Failure

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The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of

The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of interest to the company AORA because its strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures is directly applicable to their needs in a hybrid concentrated solar module. The literature review shows that the microstructure will produce different carbides at various temperatures, which can be beneficial to the strength of the alloy. These precipitates are found along the grain boundaries and act as pins that limit dislocation flow, as well as grain boundary sliding, and improve the rupture strength of the material. Over time, harmful precipitates form which counteract the strengthening effect of the carbides and reduce rupture strength, leading to failure. A combination of indentation and microstructure mapping was used in an effort to link local mechanical behavior to microstructure variability. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were initially used as a means to characterize the microstructure prior to testing. Then, a series of room temperature Vickers hardness tests at 50 and 500 gram-force were used to evaluate the variation in the local response as a function of indentation size. The room temperature study concluded that both the hardness and standard deviation increased at lower loads, which is consistent with the grain size distribution seen in the microstructure scan. The material was then subjected to high temperature spherical indentation. Load-displacement curves were essential in evaluating the decrease in strength of the material with increasing temperature. Through linear regression of the unloading portion of the curve, the plastic deformation was determined and compared at different temperatures as a qualitative method to evaluate local strength.

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  • 2015-05

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The role of grain boundary structure and crystal orientation on crack growth asymmetry in aluminum

Description

Atomistic simulations have shown that the grain boundary (GB) structure affects a number of physical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, which can have a profound effect on macroscopic properties of

Atomistic simulations have shown that the grain boundary (GB) structure affects a number of physical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, which can have a profound effect on macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. The research objective herein is to use atomistic simulations to explore the role that GB structure and the adjacent crystallographic orientations have on the directional asymmetry of an intergranular crack (i.e. cleavage behavior is favored along one direction, while ductile behavior along the other direction of the interface) for aluminum grain boundaries. Simulation results from seven 〈110〉 symmetric tilt grain boundaries (STGBs) show that the GB structure and the associated free volume directly influence the stress–strain response, crack growth rate, and crack tip plasticity mechanisms for middle-tension (M(T)) crack propagation specimens. In particular, the structural units present within the GB promote whether a dislocation or twinning-based mechanism operates at the crack tip during intergranular fracture along certain GBs (e.g., the ‘E’ structural unit promotes twinning at the crack tip in Al). Furthermore, the crystallography of the adjacent grains, and therefore the available slip planes, can significantly affect the crack growth rates in both directions of the crack – this creates a strong directional asymmetry in the crack growth rate in the Σ11 (113) and the Σ27 (552) STGBs. Upon comparing these results with the theoretical Rice criterion, it was found that certain GBs in this study (Σ9 (221), Σ11 (332) and Σ33 (441)) show an absence of directional asymmetry in the observed crack growth behavior, in conflict with the Rice criterion. The significance of the present research is that it provides a physical basis for the role of GB character and crystallographic orientation on intergranular crack tip deformation behavior.

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  • 2014-11-17