With the increasing penetration levels of distributed energy resources along distribution feeders, the importance of load modeling has grown significantly and therefore it is important to have an accurate representation of the distribution system in the planning and operation studies. Although, currently, most of the power system studies are being done using positive sequence commercial software packages for computational convenience purposes, it comes at the cost of reduced accuracy when compared to the more accurate electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulators (but more computationally intensive). However, it is expected, that in the next several years, the use of EMT simulators for large-scale system studies would become a necessity to implement the ambitious renewable energy targets adopted by many countries across the world. Currently, the issue of developing more accurate EMT feeder and load models has yet to be addressed. Therefore, in the first phase of this work, an optimization algorithm to synthesize an EMT distribution feeder and load model has been developed by capturing the current transients when three-phase voltage measurements (obtained from a local utility) are played-in as input, from events such as sub-transmission faults, to the synthesized model. Using the developed algorithm, for the proposed feeder model, both the load composition and the load parameters have been estimated. The synthesized load model has a load composition which includes impedance loads, single-phase induction motor (SPHIM) loads and three-phase induction motor loads.
In the second phase of this work, an analytical formulation of a 24 V EMT contactor is developed to trip the air conditioner EMT SPHIM load, in the feeder and load model developed in Phase 1 of this work, under low voltage conditions. Additionally, a new methodology is developed, to estimate and incorporate the trip and reconnection settings of the proposed EMT contactor model to trip, reconnect and stall the SPHIMs in a positive sequence simulator (PSLF) for single-line to ground faults. Also, the proposed methodology has been tested on a modified three-segment three-phase feeder model using a local utility’s practical feeder topological and loading information. Finally, the developed methodology is modified to accommodate three-phase faults in the system.
- Improved Distribution Feeder and Load Modeling in Power Systems using Electro Magnetic Transient Models