Matching Items (92)

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Hot Car Baby Monitor

Description

Year after year, babies are dying after being left behind in cars that reach dangerous levels of heat. This project, conducted by the Hot Babies Senior Design Team, aims to solve this growing issue with the development of a hot

Year after year, babies are dying after being left behind in cars that reach dangerous levels of heat. This project, conducted by the Hot Babies Senior Design Team, aims to solve this growing issue with the development of a hot car baby monitor. This device is integrated with multiple sensors: temperature, sound, carbon dioxide, and motion in order to detect life inside of a hot car. By using different sensors, a combination of threshold activated signals can be used to provide high quality monitoring and reduce false alarms from outside noise. Once the algorithms predict the presence of a living being inside a dangerously hot vehicle, the baby car monitor will send out text messages warning designated parents and/or guardians of the issue. The baby car monitor is further optimized with a low battery indicator and a sleep mode feature. The schedule of the project is separated into the fall and spring semesters. For the fall semester, all of the sensors and the microcontroller were purchased and tested individually. For the spring semester, all of the sensors were integrated together on a PCB and tested under hot car environments. Additionally, features such as the text messaging interface and the sleep mode were added. The budget of the final working product is roughly ~ $200. The cost includes the different sensors, microcontroller, data plan, text messaging module, and PCB. When mass produced, the cost is expected to go down.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

Description

In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs) at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors

In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs) at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS) technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

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Date Created
2016-06-22

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The Impact of Increased Penetration of Converter Control-Based Generators on Power System Modes of Oscillation

Description

The impact of increasing penetration of converter control-based generators (CCBGs) in a large-scale power system is assessed through a model based small signal stability analysis. Three test bed cases for the years 2010, 2020, and 2022 of the Western Electricity

The impact of increasing penetration of converter control-based generators (CCBGs) in a large-scale power system is assessed through a model based small signal stability analysis. Three test bed cases for the years 2010, 2020, and 2022 of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) in the United States are used for the analysis. Increasing penetration of wind-based Type 3 and wind-based Type 4 and PV Solar CCBGs is used in the tests. The participation and interaction of CCBGs and synchronous generators in traditional electromechanical interarea modes is analyzed. Two new types of modes dominated by CCBGs are identified. The characteristics of these new modes are described and compared to electromechanical modes in the frequency domain. An examination of the mechanism of the interaction between the CCBG control states and the synchronous generator control states is presented and validated through dynamic simulations. Actual system and forecast load data are used throughout.

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Date Created
2014-09-01

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Transmission expansion planning for large power systems

Description

Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a complex decision making process that requires comprehensive analysis to determine the time, location, and number of electric power transmission facilities that are needed in the future power grid. This dissertation investigates the topic of

Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a complex decision making process that requires comprehensive analysis to determine the time, location, and number of electric power transmission facilities that are needed in the future power grid. This dissertation investigates the topic of solving TEP problems for large power systems. The dissertation can be divided into two parts. The first part of this dissertation focuses on developing a more accurate network model for TEP study. First, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based TEP model is proposed for solving multi-stage TEP problems. Compared with previous work, the proposed approach reduces the number of variables and constraints needed and improves the computational efficiency significantly. Second, the AC power flow model is applied to TEP models. Relaxations and reformulations are proposed to make the AC model based TEP problem solvable. Third, a convexified AC network model is proposed for TEP studies with reactive power and off-nominal bus voltage magnitudes included in the model. A MILP-based loss model and its relaxations are also investigated. The second part of this dissertation investigates the uncertainty modeling issues in the TEP problem. A two-stage stochastic TEP model is proposed and decomposition algorithms based on the L-shaped method and progressive hedging (PH) are developed to solve the stochastic model. Results indicate that the stochastic TEP model can give a more accurate estimation of the annual operating cost as compared to the deterministic TEP model which focuses only on the peak load.

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Date Created
2013

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Error detection and error correction for PMU data as applied to power system state estimators

Description

In modern electric power systems, energy management systems (EMSs) are responsi-ble for monitoring and controlling the generation system and transmission networks. State estimation (SE) is a critical `must run successful' component within the EMS software. This is dictated by the

In modern electric power systems, energy management systems (EMSs) are responsi-ble for monitoring and controlling the generation system and transmission networks. State estimation (SE) is a critical `must run successful' component within the EMS software. This is dictated by the high reliability requirements and need to represent the closest real time model for market operations and other critical analysis functions in the EMS. Tradi-tionally, SE is run with data obtained only from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices and systems. However, more emphasis on improving the performance of SE drives the inclusion of phasor measurement units (PMUs) into SE input data. PMU measurements are claimed to be more accurate than conventional measurements and PMUs `time stamp' measurements accurately. These widely distributed devices meas-ure the voltage phasors directly. That is, phase information for measured voltages and currents are available. PMUs provide data time stamps to synchronize measurements. Con-sidering the relatively small number of PMUs installed in contemporary power systems in North America, performing SE with only phasor measurements is not feasible. Thus a hy-brid SE, including both SCADA and PMU measurements, is the reality for contemporary power system SE. The hybrid approach is the focus of a number of research papers. There are many practical challenges in incorporating PMUs into SE input data. The higher reporting rates of PMUs as compared with SCADA measurements is one of the salient problems. The disparity of reporting rates raises a question whether buffering the phasor measurements helps to give better estimates of the states. The research presented in this thesis addresses the design of data buffers for PMU data as used in SE applications in electric power systems. The system theoretic analysis is illustrated using an operating electric power system in the southwest part of the USA. Var-ious instances of state estimation data have been used for analysis purposes. The details of the research, results obtained and conclusions drawn are presented in this document.

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Date Created
2013

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Analysis of synchronization and accuracy of synchrophasor measurements

Description

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy.

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy. These measurements are known as synchrophasor measurements. Considerable research work has been done on the applications of PMU measurements based on the as-sumption that a high level of accuracy is obtained in the field. The study in this dissertation is conducted to address the basic issue concerning the accuracy of actual PMU measurements in the field. Synchronization is one of the important features of PMU measurements. However, the study presented in this dissertation reveals that the problem of faulty synchronization between measurements with the same time stamps from different PMUs exists. A Kalman filter model is proposed to analyze and calcu-late the time skew error caused by faulty synchronization. In order to achieve a high level of accuracy of PMU measurements, inno-vative methods are proposed to detect and identify system state changes or bad data which are reflected by changes in the measurements. This procedure is ap-plied as a key step in adaptive Kalman filtering of PMU measurements to over-come the insensitivity of a conventional Kalman filter. Calibration of PMU measurements is implemented in specific PMU instal-lation scenarios using transmission line (TL) parameters from operation planning data. The voltage and current correction factors calculated from the calibration procedure indicate the possible errors in PMU measurements. Correction factors can be applied in on-line calibration of PMU measurements. A study is conducted to address an important issue when integrating PMU measurements into state estimation. The reporting rate of PMU measurements is much higher than that of the measurements collected by the SCADA. The ques-tion of how to buffer PMU measurements is raised. The impact of PMU meas-urement buffer length on state estimation is discussed. A method based on hy-pothesis testing is proposed to determine the optimal buffer length of PMU meas-urements considering the two conflicting features of PMU measurements, i. e. un-certainty and variability. Results are presented for actual PMU synchrophasor measurements.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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The Enhancement of Power System Stability Under Different Fault Conditions (East Java-Bali 2018 Blackout)

Description

The Java-Bali power system is the biggest power system in Indonesia. On September 5th, 2018 at 11:26 AM, a region in the East Java-Bali subsystem suffered a blackout due to a single line to ground fault that disrupted the stability

The Java-Bali power system is the biggest power system in Indonesia. On September 5th, 2018 at 11:26 AM, a region in the East Java-Bali subsystem suffered a blackout due to a single line to ground fault that disrupted the stability of the interconnected system and caused cascaded tripping.

This thesis presents the results of an evaluation of the dynamic performance of the East Java-Bali subsystem. It involves the static and dynamic simulations of the sequence of events that led to the East Java Bali subsystem blackout, especially the impact of the loss of a set of 500 kV transmission lines, which in reality was suspected to be the main cause.

The basic calculations related to power system state and familiarization with PSS/E (a commercial power system analysis software package) are first demonstrated. A simple 3-bus system test is taken as an example. The steady state characteristics of the active and reactive power injection, voltage and phase angle are calculated manually and compared to the PSS/E simulation results. As for the dynamic characteristics, short circuit current, electrical and mechanical power, rotor angle, and fault clearing time are determined by observing the plots of the simulation results. Based on understanding of the PSS/E modeling and simulation, the configuration, generation, and loading of the simplified East Java-Bali subsystem is evaluated. The generators (including the excitation system and governor) and transmission lines parameters are updated, as the reference model for the study. The model is validated by the actual data (active power flow) before the fault. Single line to ground fault and loss of generation disturbances were simulated to observe the stability of the system.

The analysis of the blackout is conducted through the simulation results based on all relevant documentation (such as fault report and sequence of events). With respect to the sequence of events (a single line to ground fault on the 500kV transmission lines, overload on 150kV transmission lines and tripping of power plants), several simulations of the East Java-Bali subsystem operations provided in the official blackout report are evaluated. Finally, the undervoltage load shedding strategy is evaluated and proposed as a solution to mitigate the blackout in the East Java-Bali subsystem.

The simulations reveal some interesting results regarding the operational characteristics of the East Java-Bali subsystem before the disturbances and during the cascaded tripping.

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Created

Date Created
2019-12

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Solving for the low-voltage/large-angle power-flow solutions by using the holomorphic embedding method

Description

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV), or large-angle, solutions.

In this report, a recently developed non-iterative algorithm

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV), or large-angle, solutions.

In this report, a recently developed non-iterative algorithm for solving the power-

flow (PF) problem using the holomorphic embedding (HE) method is shown as

being capable of finding the HV solution, while avoiding converging to LV solutions

nearby which is a drawback to all other iterative solutions. The HE method provides a

novel non-iterative procedure to solve the PF problems by eliminating the

non-convergence and initial-estimate dependency issues appeared in the traditional

iterative methods. The detailed implementation of the HE method is discussed in the

report.

While published work focuses mainly on finding the HV PF solution, modified

holomorphically embedded formulations are proposed in this report to find the

LV/large-angle solutions of the PF problem. It is theoretically proven that the proposed

method is guaranteed to find a total number of 2N solutions to the PF problem

and if no solution exists, the algorithm is guaranteed to indicate such by the oscillations

in the maximal analytic continuation of the coefficients of the voltage power series

obtained.

After presenting the derivation of the LV/large-angle formulations for both PQ

and PV buses, numerical tests on the five-, seven- and 14-bus systems are conducted

to find all the solutions of the system of nonlinear PF equations for those systems using

the proposed HE method.

After completing the derivation to find all the PF solutions using the HE method, it

is shown that the proposed HE method can be used to find only the of interest PF solutions

(i.e. type-1 PF solutions with one positive real-part eigenvalue in the Jacobian

matrix), with a proper algorithm developed. The closet unstable equilibrium point

(UEP), one of the type-1 UEP’s, can be obtained by the proposed HE method with

limited dynamic models included.

The numerical performance as well as the robustness of the proposed HE method is

investigated and presented by implementing the algorithm on the problematic cases and

large-scale power system.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Impact of distributed photovoltaic generation and customer loads on power quality of a distribution system

Description

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits for system operations and enhance opera-tional performance of the distribution system. However, high penetration of PV resources can give rise to operating conditions which do not arise in traditional systems and one of the potential issues that needs to be addressed involves impact on power quality of the system with respect to the spectral distortion in voltages and currents.

The test bed feeder model representing a real operational distribution feeder is developed in OpenDSS and the feeder modeling takes into consideration the ob-jective of analysis and frequency of interest. Extensive metering infrastructure and measurements are utilized for validation of the model at harmonic frequencies. The harmonic study performed is divided into two sections: study of impact of non-linear loads on total harmonic voltage and current distortions and study of impact of PV resources on high frequency spectral distortion in voltages and cur-rents. The research work incorporates different harmonic study methodologies such as harmonic and high frequency power flow, and frequency scan study. The general conclusions are presented based on the simulation results and in addition, scope for future work is discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Development of improved dc network model for contingency analysis

Description

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy markets and transmission/generation expansion planning has created a niche for development of new computationally efficient and yet reliable, simple and robust power flow tools for such studies. The so called dc power flow algorithm is an important power flow tool currently in use. However, the accuracy and performance of dc power flow results is highly variable due to the various formulations which are in use. This has thus intensified the interest of researchers in coming up with better equivalent dc models that can closely match the performance of ac power flow solution.

This thesis involves the development of novel hot start dc model using a power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) approach. This document also discusses the problems of ill-conditioning / rank deficiency encountered while deriving this model. This model is then compared to several dc power flow models using the IEEE 118-bus system and ERCOT interconnection both as the base case ac solution and during single-line outage contingency analysis. The proposed model matches the base case ac solution better than contemporary dc power flow models used in the industry.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014