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The Capon-Bartlett Cross Spectrum Resolution Study

Description

Power spectral analysis is a fundamental aspect of signal processing used in the detection and \\estimation of various signal features. Signals spaced closely in frequency are problematic and lead analysts

Power spectral analysis is a fundamental aspect of signal processing used in the detection and \\estimation of various signal features. Signals spaced closely in frequency are problematic and lead analysts to miss crucial details surrounding the data. The Capon and Bartlett methods are non-parametric filterbank approaches to power spectrum estimation. The Capon algorithm is known as the "adaptive" approach to power spectrum estimation because its filter impulse responses are adapted to fit the characteristics of the data. The Bartlett method is known as the "conventional" approach to power spectrum estimation (PSE) and has a fixed deterministic filter. Both techniques rely on the Sample Covariance Matrix (SCM). The first objective of this project is to analyze the origins and characteristics of the Capon and Bartlett methods to understand their abilities to resolve signals closely spaced in frequency. Taking into consideration the Capon and Bartlett's reliance on the SCM, there is a novelty in combining these two algorithms using their cross-coherence. The second objective of this project is to analyze the performance of the Capon-Bartlett Cross Spectra. This study will involve Matlab simulations of known test cases and comparisons with approximate theoretical predictions.

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  • 2019-05

All About Solar

Description

This is a lectures series on photovoltaics. As the need for electrical energy rises, mankind has struggled to meet its need in a reliable lasting way. Throughout this struggle, solar

This is a lectures series on photovoltaics. As the need for electrical energy rises, mankind has struggled to meet its need in a reliable lasting way. Throughout this struggle, solar energy has come to the foreground as a complete solution. However, it has many drawbacks and needs a lot of development. In addition, the general public is unaware of how solar energy works, how it is made, and how it stands economically. This series of lectures answering those three questions. After two years doing photovoltaic research, and an undergraduate degree in Electrical Engineering, enough expertise has been acquired present on at a late high-school to early college level. Education is key to improving the popularity of using solar energy and the popularity of investing in photovoltaic research. Solar energy is a viable option to satisfy our energy crisis because the materials it requires can quickly be acquired, and there is enough of material to provide a global solution. In addition, the amount of solar energy that hits the surface of the earth in a day is orders of magnitude more than the amount of energy we require. The main goal of this project is to have an effective accessible tool to teach people about solar. Thus, the lectured will be posted on pveducation.com, YouTube, the Barrett repository, and the QUSST website. The content was acquired in four ways. The first way is reading up on the current papers and journals describing the new developments in photovoltaics. The second part is getting in contact with Stuart Bowden and Bill Daukser at Arizona State University's Solar Power Lab as well as the other faculty associated with the Solar Power Lab. There is quite a bit of novel research going on at their lab, as well as a student run pilot line that is actively building solar cells. The third way is reading about solar device physics using device physics textbooks and the PVEducation website made by Stuart Bowden. The forth way is going into ASU's solar power lab.

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  • 2017-05

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Optimization of Front Contact Design on Nickel-Plated Si Solar Cells

Description

As global population and demand for electrical power increase, humanity is faced with the growing challenge of harnessing and distributing enough energy to sustain the developing world. Currently, fossil fuels

As global population and demand for electrical power increase, humanity is faced with the growing challenge of harnessing and distributing enough energy to sustain the developing world. Currently, fossil fuels (coal
atural gas) are our main sources of electricity. However, their cost is increasing, they are nonrenewable, and they are very harmful to the environment. Thus, capacity expansion in the renewable energy sector must be realized to offset higher energy demand and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Solar energy represents a practical solution, as installed global solar capacity has been increasing exponentially over the past 2 decades. However, even with government incentives, solar energy price ($/kWh) continues to be highly dependent on political climate and raw material (silicon and silver) cost. To realistically and cost effectively meet the projected expansions within the solar industry, silver must be replaced with less costly and more abundant metals (such as copper) in the front-grid metallization process of photovoltaic cells. Copper, while offering both higher achievable efficiencies and a raw material cost nearly 100 times cheaper than silver, has inherent disadvantages. Specifically, copper diffuses rapidly into the silicon substrate, requires more complex and error-prone processing steps, and tends to have less adhesive strength, reducing panel robustness. In this study, nickel deposition via sputtering was analyzed, as well as overall potential of nickel as a seed layer for copper plating, which also provides a barrier layer to copper diffusion in silicon. Thermally-formed nickel silicide also reduces contact resistivity, increasing cell efficiency. It was found that at 400 \u00B0C, ideal nickel silicide formation occurred. By computer modeling, contact resistivity was found to have a significant impact on cell efficiency (up to 1.8%). Finally, sputtering proved useful to analyze nickel silicide formation, but costs and time requirements prevent it from being a practical industrial-scale metallization method.

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  • 2017-05

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A Review of Gallium Nitride HEMTs to Improve CubeSat EPS Efficiency

Description

This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power

This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power losses. A strategy to fix these is proposed by the way of using Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron-Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) as switching devices within Buck/Boost Converters and other regulators. This work summarizes the EPS designs of several CubeSat missions, classifies them, and outlines their efficiency. An in-depth example of an EPS is also given, explaining the process in which these systems are designed. Areas of deficiency are explained along with reasoning as to why GaN can mitigate these losses, including its wide bandgap properties such as high RDS(on) and High Breakdown Voltage. Special design considerations must be kept in mind when using GaN HEMTs in this application and an example of a CubeSat using GaN HEMTs is mentioned. Finally, challenges ahead for GaN are explored including manufacturing considerations and long-term reliability.

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  • 2017-05

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Cryogenic Testing of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs)

Description

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on the first and second stages respectively. During the first semester of my thesis I worked on getting the second stage to reach below 4K such that it would be cold enough to add a sorption fridge to reach 250mK. Various parts were machined for the cryostat and some tweaks were made to existing pieces. The largest changes were we thinned our stainless steel supports from 2mm to 10mil and we added roughly 6-10 layers of multi-layer insulation to the first and second stages. Our result was that we now reach temperatures of 36K and 2.6K on the first and second stages respectively. Next we added the sorption fridge to the 4K stage by having the 4K stage remachined to allow the sorption fridge to be mounted to the stage. Then I designed a final, two stage, setup for the 1K and 250mK stages that has maximum capabilities of housing a six inch wafer for testing. The design was sent to a machinist, but the parts were unfinished by the end of my thesis, so the parts and stage were not tested. Once the cryostat was fully tested and proven to reach the necessary temperatures, preliminary testing was done on a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) provided by Stanford. Data was collected on the resonance and quality factor as they shifted with final stage temperature (5K to 285mK) and with input power (60dB to 15dB). The data was analyzed and the results agreed within expectations, as the resonant frequency and quality factor shifted down with increased temperature on the MKID. Finally, a noise characterization setup was designed to test the noise of devices, but was not fully implemented.

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  • 2017-05

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Low Noise and Low Leakage Electric Field Imaging

Description

Imaging using electric fields could provide a cheaper, safer, and easier alternative to the standard methods used for imaging. The viability of electric field imaging at very low frequencies using

Imaging using electric fields could provide a cheaper, safer, and easier alternative to the standard methods used for imaging. The viability of electric field imaging at very low frequencies using D-dot sensors has already been investigated and proven. The new goal is to determine if imaging is viable at high frequencies. In order to accomplish this, the operational amplifiers used in the very low frequency imaging test set up must be replaced with ones that have higher bandwidth. The trade-off of using these amplifiers is that they have a typical higher input leakage current on the order of 100 compared to the standard. Using a modified circuit design technique that reduces input leakage current of the operational amplifiers used in the imaging test setup, a printed circuit board with D-dot sensors is fabricated to identify the frequency limitations of electric field imaging. Data is collected at both low and high frequencies as well as low peak voltage. The data is then analyzed to determine the range in intensity of electric field and frequency that this circuit low-leakage design can accurately detect a signal. Data is also collected using another printed circuit board that uses the standard circuit design technique. The data taken from the different boards is compared to identify if the modified circuit design technique allows for higher sensitivity imaging. In conclusion, this research supports that using low-leakage design techniques can allow for signal detection comparable to that of the standard circuit design. The low-leakage design allowed for sensitivity within a factor two to that of the standard design. Although testing at higher frequencies was limited, signal detection for the low-leakage design was reliable up until 97 kHz, but further experimentation is needed to determine the upper frequency limits.

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  • 2016-12

All About Solar

Description

This is a lectures series on photovoltaics. As the need for electrical energy rises, mankind has struggled to meet its need in a reliable lasting way. Throughout this struggle, solar

This is a lectures series on photovoltaics. As the need for electrical energy rises, mankind has struggled to meet its need in a reliable lasting way. Throughout this struggle, solar energy has come to the foreground as a complete solution. However, it has many drawbacks and needs a lot of development. In addition, the general public is unaware of how solar energy works, how it is made, and how it stands economically. This series of lectures answering those three questions.

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  • 2017-05

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Active Ripple Cancellation in Hysteretic Controlled Buck Converters

Description

Buck converters are a class of switched-mode power converters often used to step down DC input voltages to a lower DC output voltage. These converters naturally produce a current and

Buck converters are a class of switched-mode power converters often used to step down DC input voltages to a lower DC output voltage. These converters naturally produce a current and voltage ripple at their output due to their switching action. Traditional methods of reducing this ripple have involved adding large discrete inductors and capacitors to filter the ripple, but large discrete components cannot be integrated onto chips. As an alternative to using passive filtering components, this project investigates the use of active ripple cancellation to reduce the peak output ripple. Hysteretic controlled buck converters were chosen for their simplicity of design and fast transient response. The proposed cancellation circuits sense the output ripple of the buck converter and inject an equal ripple exactly out of phase with the sensed ripple. Both current-mode and voltage-mode feedback loops are simulated, and the effectiveness of each cancellation circuit is examined. Results show that integrated active ripple cancellation circuits offer a promising substitute for large discrete filters.

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  • 2017-12

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On the Communication Barrier Between Engineers and Clinicians Through Clinical Footwear Development

Description

There is a demonstrable issue in how new medical technologies are developed. The consumer market is always overflowing with the newest possible technologies; however, this is often not the case

There is a demonstrable issue in how new medical technologies are developed. The consumer market is always overflowing with the newest possible technologies; however, this is often not the case in the medical field. The consumer market refers to a product that any individual can buy in a retail store, whereas a product for the medical field is prescribed by a clinician for use by a patient. The development of devices usually targets the consumer market rather than the medical field. This trend leads to the development of devices that may have consumer and clinical benefits not receiving consideration in the clinical market because they are not designed with a strictly medical purpose in mind. This is an issue that needs rectification, as injured patients deserve the best possible care with the best technologies available. The development of these technologies should not be limited by a lack of communication between clinicians and engineers. This thesis will explore why product development in the medical field lags behind that of the consumer market. It will also offer practical solutions, as well as having an engineering team develop a device specifically for use in the medical field. The development of this product will show that the lack of communication between clinicians and engineers is possible to overcome. From this development process, recommendations will be made to offer specific solutions to overcome the communication barrier and aid future product development.

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  • 2020-05

Usage of a Texas Instruments Smart SensorTag for Personal Applications: Fall Detection and Prevention to Enhance Elderly Living

Description

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and problem solving. This project, with three or four engineers working together in a group, emphasizes not only the importance of technical skills acquired through laboratory procedures and coursework, but the significance of soft skills as one transitions from a university to a professional workplace; it also enhances the understanding of an engineer's obligation to ethically improve society by harnessing technical knowledge to bring about change. The CC2541 Smart SensorTag is a device manufactured by Texas Instruments that focuses on the use of wireless sensors to create low energy applications, or apps; it is equipped with Bluetooth Smart, which enables it to communicate wirelessly with similar devices like smart phones and computers, assisting greatly in app development. The device contains six built-in sensors, which can be utilized to track and log personal data in real-time; these sensors include a gyroscope, accelerometer, humidifier, thermometer, barometer, and magnetometer. By combining the data obtained through the sensors with the ability to communicate wirelessly, the SensorTag can be used to develop apps in multiple fields, including fitness, recreation, health, safety, and more. Team SensorTag chose to focus on health and safety issues to complete its capstone project, creating applications intended for use by senior citizens who live alone or in assisted care homes. Using the SensorTag's ability to track multiple local variables, the team worked to collect data that verified the accuracy and quality of the sensors through repeated experimental trials. Once the sensors were tested, the team developed applications accessible via smart phones or computers to trigger an alarm and send an alert via vibration, e-mail, or Tweet if the SensorTag detects a fall. The fall detection service utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors with the hope that such a system will prevent severe injuries among the elderly, allow them to function more independently, and improve their quality of life, which is the obligation of engineers to better through their work.

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  • 2015-12