Matching Items (110)

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Overview of Real-Time Simulation as a Supporting Effort to Smart-Grid Attainment

Description

The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid

The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid approach are presented as enabling steps toward the smart-grid’s actual implementation. The objective of this work is to contribute with an introductory text for interested readers of real-time systems in the context of modern electric needs and trends. In addition, a comprehensive review of current applications of real-time simulation in electric systems is provided, together with the basis to understand real-time simulation and the topologies and hardware used to implement it. Furthermore, an overview of the evolution of real-time simulators in the industrial and academic background and its current challenges are introduced.

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Date Created
  • 2017-06-16

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Design of Advanced DC-AC Converter for Underprivileged Communities

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Growing up in Ghana West Africa, I realized there were a few major obstacles hindering the education of the youth. One of them was the consistent supply of all year-round

Growing up in Ghana West Africa, I realized there were a few major obstacles hindering the education of the youth. One of them was the consistent supply of all year-round power. Therefore, pursuing a career in power electronics, I decided to research and implement a budget-friendly DC-AC converter that can take power from a DC source such as a solar panel to make AC power, suitable for grid-implementation. This project was undertaken with two other colleagues (Ian Vogt and Brett Fennelly), as our Senior Design Capstone project. My colleagues primarily researched into the "advanced" part of the converter such as Volt-VAR, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), and variable power factor, making the Capstone project be dubbed as "Smart Inverter". In this paper, I elaborate on the entire process of my research and simulation, through the design and layout of the PCB board to milling, soldering and testing. That was my contribution to the capstone project. After testing the board, it was concluded that although the inverter was intended to be the very inexpensive, some electrical and design principles could not be compromised. The converter did successfully invert DC power to AC, but it was only at low voltage levels; it could not withstand the higher voltages. This roadblock stymied the testing of advanced functionalities, paving way for an avenue of further research and implementation.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Advanced PV Inverter with Grid Supporting Functions using Wide Bandgap Devices and the IEEE 1547-2018

Description

Energy poverty is the lack of access to the basic energy resources needed for human development. Fossil fuels, through their heavy emissions and transience, are slowly but surely leaving room

Energy poverty is the lack of access to the basic energy resources needed for human development. Fossil fuels, through their heavy emissions and transience, are slowly but surely leaving room for change in the energy sector as renewable energy sources rise to the challenge of sustainable, clean, and cost-efficient energy production. Because it is mostly located in rural areas, solutions crafted against energy poverty need to be appropriate for those areas and their development objectives. As top contenders, photovoltaics insertion in the energy market has largely soared creating, therefore, a need for its distributed energy resources to interconnect appropriately to the area electrical power system. EEE Senior Design Team 11 saw in this the need to design an advanced photovoltaic inverter with those desired grid functions but also leveraging the technological superiority of wide bandgap devices over silicon semiconductors. The honors creative project is an integral part of the senior design capstone project for Team 11. It has a two-front approach, first exploring the IEEE 1547-2018 standard on distributed energy resources; then focusing on the author’s personal contribution to the aforementioned senior design project: digital signal processing and grid support implementation. This report serves as an accompanying write up to the creative project.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Optimal substation ground grid design based on genetic algorithm and pattern research

Description

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of a substation ground system should include both safety concerns and ground grid construction cost. In the purpose of optimal designing the ground grid in the accurate and efficient way, an application package coded in MATLAB is developed and its core algorithm and main features are introduced in this work.

To ensure accuracy and personnel safety, a two-layer soil model is applied instead of the uniform soil model in this research. Some soil model parameters are needed for the two-layer soil model, namely upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness. Since the ground grid safety requirement is considered under the earth fault, the value of fault current and fault duration time are also needed.

After all these parameters are obtained, a Resistance Matrix method is applied to calculate the mutual and self resistance between conductor segments on both the horizontal and vertical direction. By using a matrix equation of the relationship of mutual and self resistance and unit current of the conductor segments, the ground grid rise can be calculated. Green's functions are applied to calculate the earth potential at a certain point produced by horizontal or vertical line of current. Furthermore, the three basic ground grid safety requirement quantities: the mesh touch potential in the worst case point can be obtained from the earth potential and ground grid rise; the step potential can be obtained from two points' earth potential difference; the grid resistance can be obtained from ground grid rise and fault current.

Finally, in order to achieve ground grid optimization problem more accurate and efficient, which includes the number of meshes in the horizontal grid and the number of vertical rods, a novel two-step hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS) optimization method is developed. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used first to search for an approximate starting point, which is used by the Pattern Search (PS) algorithm to find the final optimal result. This developed application provides an optimal grid design meeting all safety constraints. In the cause of the accuracy of the application, the touch potential, step potential, ground potential rise and grid resistance are compared with these produced by the industry standard application WinIGS and some theoretical ground grid model.

In summary, the developed application can solve the ground grid optimization problem with the accurate ground grid modeling method and a hybrid two-step optimization method.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

Description

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Implementation of pilot protection system for large scale distribution system like the future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

Description

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL)

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Grounding systems analysis and optimization

Description

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation must guarantee the safety of persons who are in the area of the substation. As a result, the safety metrics (touch voltage, step voltage and grounding resistance), which should be considered at worst case, are supposed to be under the allowable values. To improve the accuracy of calculating safety metrics, at first, it is necessary to have a relatively accurate soil model instead of uniform soil model. Hence, the two-layer soil model is employed in this thesis. The new approximate finite equations with soil parameters (upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness) are used, which are developed based on traditional infinite expression. The weighted- least-squares regression with new bad data detection method (adaptive weighted function) is applied to fit the measurement data from the Wenner-method. At the end, a developed error analysis method is used to obtain the error (variance) of each parameter. Once the soil parameters are obtained, it is possible to use a developed complex images method to calculate the mutual (self) resistance, which is the induced voltage of a conductor/rod by unit current form another conductor/rod. The basis of the calculation is Green's function between two point current sources, thus, it can be expanded to either the functions between point and line current sources, or the functions between line and line current sources. Finally, the grounding system optimization is implemented with developed three-step optimization strategy using MATLAB solvers. The first step is using "fmincon" solver to optimize the cost function with differentiable constraint equations from IEEE standard. The result of the first step is set as the initial values to the second step, which is using "patternsearch" solver, thus, the non-differentiable and more accurate constraint calculation can be employed. The final step is a backup step using "ga" solver, which is more robust but lager time cost.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Detection and analysis of partial discharges in non-uniform field

Description

Insulation aging monitoring is widely used to evaluate the operating condition of power equipment. One important monitoring method is detecting partial discharges (PD). PD is a localized breakdown of dielectric

Insulation aging monitoring is widely used to evaluate the operating condition of power equipment. One important monitoring method is detecting partial discharges (PD). PD is a localized breakdown of dielectric and its characteristics can give information about the insulation aging. Most existing test methods cannot identify different kinds of defects. Also, the practical application of PD detection in most existing test methods is restricted by weak PD signals and strong electric field disturbance from surroundings. In order to monitor aging situation in detail, types of PDs are important features to take into account. To classify different types of PDs, pulse sequence analysis (PSA) method is advocated to analyze PDs in the rod-plane model. This method can reflect cumulative effects of PDs, which are always ignored when only measuring PD value. It also shows uniform characteristics when different kinds of detecting system are utilized. Moreover, it does not need calibration. Analysis results from PSA show highly consistent distribution patterns for the same type of PDs and significant differences in the distribution patterns among types of PDs. Furthermore, a new method to detect PD signals using fiber bragg grating (FBG) based PD sensor is studied in this research. By using a piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT), small PD signals can be converted to pressure signal and then converted to an optical wavelength signal with FBG. The optical signal is isolated from the electric field; therefore its attenuation and anti-jamming performance will be better than traditional methods. Two sensors, one with resonant frequency of 42.7 kHz and the other 300 kHz, were used to explore the performance of this testing system. However, there were issues with the sensitivity of the sensors of these devices and the results have been communicated with the company. These devices could not give the results at the same level of accuracy as the conventional methods.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Dynamic loading of substation distribution transformers: an application for use in a production grade environment

Description

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability of transformers. This information can be used to load devices closer to their limits without exceeding the manufacturer specified operating limits. The maximally efficient dynamic loading of transformers requires a model that can accurately predict both top-oil temperatures (TOTs) and hottest-spot temperatures (HSTs). In the previous work, two kinds of thermal TOT and HST models have been studied and used in the application: the IEEE TOT/HST models and the ASU TOT/HST models. And, several metrics have been applied to evaluate the model acceptability and determine the most appropriate models for using in the dynamic loading calculations. In this work, an investigation to improve the existing transformer thermal models performance is presented. Some factors that may affect the model performance such as improper fan status and the error caused by the poor performance of IEEE models are discussed. Additional methods to determine the reliability of transformer thermal models using metrics such as time constant and the model parameters are also provided. A new production grade application for real-time dynamic loading operating purpose is introduced. This application is developed by using an existing planning application, TTeMP, as a start point, which is designed for the dispatchers and load specialists. To overcome the limitations of TTeMP, the new application can perform dynamic loading under emergency conditions, such as loss-of transformer loading. It also has the capability to determine the emergency rating of the transformers for a real-time estimation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013