Environmental stressors can perturb cellular homeostasis. Cells activate an integrated stress response that will alleviate the effects of the ongoing stress. Stress-activated protein kinases function to phosphorylate the eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF2α, which results in inhibition of translation of house-keeping genes. Following these events, formation of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes, known as stress granules, will take place. Stress granules typically have a pro-survival function. These studies demonstrate that assembly of stress granules can also lead to necroptosis. Necroptosis is a caspase-independent, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent cell death pathway executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein. Cellular stress is induced using arsenite (oxidative stress) or by infection with vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 protein Z-DNA-binding domain mutant, VACV-E3LΔ83N. In both cases, RIPK3-dependent death was observed in interferon (IFN)-primed L929 cells. This death led to phosphorylation and trimerization of MLKL, indicative of necroptosis. Necroptosis induced by oxidative stress and VACV-E3LΔ83N infection was dependent on the host Z-form nucleic acid sensor, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI), as it was inhibited in DAI-deficient L929 cells. Under both cellular stresses, DAI associated with RIPK3 and formed high-molecular-weight complexes, consistent with formation of the necrosomes. DAI localized into stress granules during necroptosis induced by arsenite and the mutant virus, and the necrosomes formed only in presence of stress granule assembly. The significance of stress granules for cellular stress-induced necroptosis was demonstrated using knock-out (KO) cell lines unable to form granules: T cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) KO MEF cells and Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding proteins 1 and 2 (G3BP1/2) KO U2OS cells. Necroptosis was inhibited in absence of stress granule formation as no cell death or activation of MLKL was observed in the knock-out cell lines following arsenite treatment or VACV-E3LΔ83N infection. Furthermore, wild-type VACV was able to inhibit stress granule assembly, which coincided with the virus ability to inhibit necroptosis. These studies have led to a model of Z-form nucleic acids being involved in activation of the stress granule-mediated necroptosis following induction by environmental stressors. These results have significance for understanding the etiology of human diseases and the antiviral innate immunity.
- Stress Granule-mediated Mechanism of the Cellular Death Pathway Necroptosis Induced Through Oxidative Stress and Viral Infection
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