Matching Items (47)

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Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit

Description

Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase,

Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h[superscript -1]) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (P<0.05). We then evaluated these same responses in a primary cell culture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = – 0.6744; P<0.01), and could be modeled in vitro by prolonged exposure of primary myotubes derived from the lean subject to NEFA extracted from the obese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; P<0.05). Our experiments implicate circulating NEFA in obesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish impaired β-F1-ATPase translation as an important consequence of obesity.

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Date Created
  • 2016-08-17

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Ebselen inhibits QSOX1 enzymatic activity and suppresses invasion of pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines

Description

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells and alters extracellular matrix composition. In a nude mouse-human tumor xenograft model, tumors containing shRNA for QSOX1 grew significantly more slowly than controls, suggesting that QSOX1 supports a proliferative phenotype in vivo. High throughput screening experiments identified ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of QSOX1 enzymatic activity. Ebselen treatment of pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines stalled tumor growth and inhibited invasion through Matrigel in vitro. Daily oral treatment with ebselen resulted in a 58% reduction in tumor growth in mice bearing human pancreatic tumor xenografts compared to controls. Mass spectrometric analysis of ebselen-treated QSOX1 mechanistically revealed that C165 and C237 of QSOX1 covalently bound to ebselen. This report details the anti-neoplastic properties of ebselen in pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines. The results here offer a “proof-of-principle” that enzymatic inhibition of QSOX1 may have clinical relevancy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation in SETD2-deregulated renal cell carcinoma

Description

Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) harbor frequent mutations in epigenetic modifiers including SETD2, the H3K36me3 writer. We profiled DNA methylation (5mC) across the genome in cell line-based models of

Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) harbor frequent mutations in epigenetic modifiers including SETD2, the H3K36me3 writer. We profiled DNA methylation (5mC) across the genome in cell line-based models of SETD2 inactivation and SETD2 mutant primary tumors because 5mC has been linked to H3K36me3 and is therapeutically targetable. SETD2 depleted cell line models (long-term and acute) exhibited a DNA hypermethylation phenotype coinciding with ectopic gains in H3K36me3 centered across intergenic regions adjacent to low expressing genes, which became upregulated upon dysregulation of the epigenome. Poised enhancers of developmental genes were prominent hypermethylation targets. SETD2 mutant primary ccRCCs, papillary renal cell carcinomas, and lung adenocarcinomas all demonstrated a DNA hypermethylation phenotype that segregated tumors by SETD2 genotype and advanced grade. These findings collectively demonstrate that SETD2 mutations drive tumorigenesis by coordinated disruption of the epigenome and transcriptome,and they have important implications for future therapeutic strategies targeting chromatin regulator mutant tumors.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12-05

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Improving the Valley Fever Gene Annotation Through Proteogenomic Analysis

Description

Valley Fever, also known as coccidioidomycosis, is a respiratory disease that affects 10,000 people annually, primarily in Arizona and California. Due to a lack of gene annotation, diagnosis and treatment

Valley Fever, also known as coccidioidomycosis, is a respiratory disease that affects 10,000 people annually, primarily in Arizona and California. Due to a lack of gene annotation, diagnosis and treatment of Valley Fever is severely limited. In turn, gene annotation efforts are also hampered by incomplete genome sequencing. We intend to use proteogenomic analysis to reannotate the Coccidioides posadasii str. Silveira genome from protein-level data. Protein samples extracted from both phases of Silveira were fragmented into peptides, sequenced, and compared against databases of known and predicted proteins sequences, as well as a de novo six-frame translation of the genome. 288 unique peptides were located that did not match a known Silveira annotation, and of those 169 were associated with another Coccidioides strain. Additionally, 17 peptides were found at the boundary of, or outside of, the current gene annotation comprising four distinct clusters. For one of these clusters, we were able to calculate a lower bound and an estimate for the size of the gap between two Silveira contigs using the Coccidioides immitis RS transcript associated with that cluster's peptides \u2014 these predictions were consistent with the current annotation's scaffold structure. Three peptides were associated with an actively translated transposon, and a putative active site was located within an intact LTR retrotransposon. We note that gene annotation is necessarily hindered by the quality and level of detail in prior genome sequencing efforts, and recommend that future studies involving reannotation include additional sequencing as well as gene annotation via proteogenomics or other methods.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Characterization of Exosomes In Pediatric Cancer Cells

Description

Exosomes have been known to secrete an increased amount of miRNA and noncoding genes that are abnormally expressed in various cancer subtypes. Thus, they may be an early marker for

Exosomes have been known to secrete an increased amount of miRNA and noncoding genes that are abnormally expressed in various cancer subtypes. Thus, they may be an early marker for pediatric cancer types that are more difficult to diagnosis without invasive techniques, and may also help identify progression of the disease. In the project, six types of pediatric cancer cell lines, along with their extracted exosomes, were analyzed and tested for different monoclonal antibodies through western blot analysis. The genes EWS-FLI1 and FGFR4 were also identified in some cancer cell lines through Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis (RT-PCR). The results were indicative of similar protein markers being found in both the originating cells and their corresponding exosomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) Helps Maintain Mitochondrial Function in MPP+-induced PC12 Cells

Description

Impairments to mitochondrial function and metabolism can make neurons vulnerable to stress and degeneration. Several studies have shown that aberrations in the electron transport chain (ETC) and the Krebs cycle

Impairments to mitochondrial function and metabolism can make neurons vulnerable to stress and degeneration. Several studies have shown that aberrations in the electron transport chain (ETC) and the Krebs cycle are involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therefore, targeting these pathways is becoming increasingly important in the discovery of new treatment for neurodegenerative diseases like PD. (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most common polyphenol found in Green tea, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects and lower the risk of developing PD. However, the mechanism by which it accomplishes this remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to shed light on these mechanisms by exploring the effects of EGCG against MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction with PC12 cells being used as a PD pathological cell model. The cell viability differences between cells treated with varying combinations of MPP+ and EGCG were measured using a CCK-8 assay. The morphology changes induced by the different treatments were then identified with fluorescence microscopy. Next, a Seahorse assay was carried out to investigate mitochondrial function followed by GC-MS and LC-MS analysis to evaluate mitochondrial metabolism. 13C metabolic flux analysis was then used to trace the metabolic flux of the Krebs cycle. The results of the CCK-8 assay and fluorescence microscopy showed that EGCG helps attenuate the decreased viability of PC12 cells as well as the morphology changes induced by MPP+. The Seahorse and GC-MS assay found that the it also helps prevent impaired mitochondrial respiration caused by MPP+. The impaired mitochondrial respiration manifested as alterations to the Krebs cycle and glycolysis. In addition, 13C metabolic flux analysis revealed significant increases in Krebs cycle activity in MPP+-induced PC12 cells if treated with EGCG beforehand. Moreover, LC-MS showed a distinct metabolite profile for each group and identified 26 potent biomarkers. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that EGCG exerts a neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells and helps maintain mitochondrial metabolic balance in the presence of MPP+.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Construction and Characterization of Recombinant anti-PD-L1 Single Chain Antibodies

Description

Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an overexpressed protein on many tumor cell types. PD-L1 is involved in normal immune regulation, playing an important role in self-tolerance and controlling autoimmunity.

Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an overexpressed protein on many tumor cell types. PD-L1 is involved in normal immune regulation, playing an important role in self-tolerance and controlling autoimmunity. However, ligation of PD-L1 to PD-1 on activated T cells leads to tumor-mediated T cell suppression. Inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has emerged as an effective target for anti-tumor immunotherapies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor-associated antigens such as PD-L1 have proven to be effective checkpoint blockades, improving therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients and receiving FDA approval as first line therapies for some cancers. A single chain variable fragment (scFv) is composed of the variable heavy and light chain regions of a mAb, connected by a flexible linker. We hypothesized that scFv proteins based on the published anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody sequences of atezolizumab and avelumab would bind to cell surface PD-L1. Four single chain variable fragments (scFvs) were constructed based on the sequences of these mAbs. PCR was used to assemble, construct, and amplify DNA fragments encoding the scFvs which were subsequently ligated into a eukaryotic expression vector. Mammalian cells were transfected with the scFv and scFv-IgG plasmids. The scFvs were tested for binding to PD-L1 on tumor cell lysates by western blot and to whole tumor cells by staining and flow cytometry analysis. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the scFv constructs were successfully amplified and cloned into the expression vectors and recombinant scFvs were produced. The binding capabilities of the scFvs constucts to PD-L1 protein were confirmed by western blot and flow cytometry analysis. This lead to the idea of constructing a CAR T cell engineered to target PD-L1, providing a possible adoptive T cell immunotherapy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Detection of antibodies to HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer using custom bead arrays

Description

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens are potential diagnostic biomarkers of HPV-associated OPC (HPV OPC). A custom multiplexed bead array assay was used to detect Abs to HPV16 antigens E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, and L2. Following extensive optimization of the assay, these genes were expressed as GST-fusion proteins and captured onto anti-GST magnetic beads. Serum was obtained from 256 OPC patients at the time of diagnosis and from 78 healthy controls. The median fluorescent intensity (MFI) was determined for each antigen and ratios of MFI to control GST-fusion protein were determined for each serum sample. Cutoff values were set as the mean + 3 SD of the MFIs of healthy controls and p-values were calculated using Wilcoxon unpaired and Fisher's exact test. Results of this experiment showed that HPV16 E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E6, and E7 Ab levels were elevated in OPC patients compared to controls (p<0.001), as were Ab levels to L1 (p = 0.013) and L2 (p = 0.023), per Fischer's exact test. Abs to CE2, NE2, E6, and E7 were identified as a potential biomarker panel for early detection of HPV OPC. For the 111 patients with known HPV+ tumors as measured by tumor PCR of E6 and/or E7, this assay had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 87% (AUC = 0.96). From these results, we conclude that custom bead array assays can be used to detect HPV16 Abs in patient sera, and we have identified a 4-Ab biomarker panel for the early detection of HPV OPC.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

Genetically Engineered Salmonella Typhimurium for Targeting & Selective Expression of TRAIL in Necrotizing Tumors

Description

A novel and unconventional approach for delivering a eukaryotic apoptosis factor, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), to cancer cells within and around necrotizing tumors by utilizing a S. Typhimurium purine requiring

A novel and unconventional approach for delivering a eukaryotic apoptosis factor, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), to cancer cells within and around necrotizing tumors by utilizing a S. Typhimurium purine requiring auxotroph as a biological vector to develop two anticancer therapies with multiple modality and broad economic feasibility.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Investigate and characterize the means to reduce the toxicity of genetically engineered cancer therapeutic recombinant attenuated Salmonella

Description

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and represents a tremendous burden on patients, families and societies. S. Typhimurium strains are specifically attracted to compounds

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world and represents a tremendous burden on patients, families and societies. S. Typhimurium strains are specifically attracted to compounds produced by cancer cells and could overcome the traditional therapeutic barrier. However, a major problem with using live attenuated Salmonella as anti-cancer agents is their toxicity at the dose required for therapeutic efficacy, but reducing the dose results in diminished efficacy. In this project, we explored novel means to reduce the toxicity of the recombinant attenuated Salmonella by genetically engineering those virulence factors to facilitate maximal colonization of tumor tissues and reduced fitness in normal tissues. We have constructed two sets of Salmonella strains. In the first set, each targeted gene was knocked out by deletion of the gene. In the second set, the predicted promoter region of each gene was replaced with a rhamnose-regulated promoter, which will cease the synthesis of these genes in vivo, a rhamnose-free environment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05