Miniaturization of microdevices comes at the cost of increased circuit complexity and operating current densities. At high current densities, the resulting electron wind imparts a large momentum to metal ions triggering electromigration which leads to degradation of interconnects and solder, ultimately resulting in circuit failure. Although electromigration-induced defects in electronic materials can manifest in several forms, the formation of voids is a common occurrence.
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- Masters Thesis Materials Science and Engineering 2020