Matching Items (43)

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Effective Constitutive Response of Sustainable Next Generation Infrastructure Materials through High-Fidelity Experiments and Numerical Simulation

Description

Design of novel infrastructure materials requires a proper understanding of the influence of microstructure on the desired performance. The priority is to seek new and innovative ways to develop sustainable

Design of novel infrastructure materials requires a proper understanding of the influence of microstructure on the desired performance. The priority is to seek new and innovative ways to develop sustainable infrastructure materials using natural resources and industrial solid wastes in a manner that is ecologically sustainable and yet economically viable. Structural materials are invariably designed based on mechanical performance. Accurate prediction of effective constitutive behavior of highly heterogeneous novel structural materials with multiple microstructural phases is a challenging task. This necessitates reliable classification and characterization of constituent phases in terms of their volume fractions, size distributions and intrinsic elastic properties, coupled with numerical homogenization technique. This paper explores a microstructure-guided numerical framework that derives inputs from nanoindentation and synchrotron x-ray tomography towards the prediction of effective constitutive response of novel sustainable structural materials so as to enable microstructure-guided design.

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Date Created
  • 2017-02-22

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Fractography of a neck failure in a double-modular hip implant

Description

The tapered joints of modular hip implants are prone to fretting and crevice-corrosion. This can lead to total failure in under a year, especially for heavier, more active implant recipients.

The tapered joints of modular hip implants are prone to fretting and crevice-corrosion. This can lead to total failure in under a year, especially for heavier, more active implant recipients. In this study, fractography of a failed Profemur Z implant showed that a life limiting fatigue crack was nucleated on the anterolateral surface of the implant's neck. The fatigue crack nucleation area appeared to have both more fretting damage and a higher corrosion rate than on other surfaces of the neck.

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Date Created
  • 2014-04-08

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Understanding Pitting Corrosion in a High-Performance Aluminum Alloy by 4D X-ray Microtomography

Description

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization methods are typically used to identify and characterize corrosion; however, these methods are destructive and do not enable an efficient means of quantifying mechanisms of pit initiation and growth. In this study, lab-scale x-ray microtomography was used to non-destructively observe, quantify, and understand pit growth in three dimensions over a 20-day corrosion period in the AA7075-T651 alloy. The XRT process, capable of imaging sample volumes with a resolution near one micrometer, was found to be an ideal tool for large-volume pit examination. Pit depths were quantified over time using renderings of sample volumes, leading to an understanding of how inclusion particles, oxide breakdown, and corrosion mechanisms impact the growth and morphology of pits. This process, when carried out on samples produced with two different rolling directions and rolling extents, yielded novel insights into the long-term macroscopic corrosion behaviors impacted by alloy production and design. Key among these were the determinations that the alloy’s rolling direction produces a significant difference in the average growth rate of pits and that the corrosion product layer loses its passivating effect as a result of cyclic immersion. In addition, a new mechanism of pitting corrosion is proposed which is focused on the pseudo-random spatial distribution of iron-rich inclusion particles in the alloy matrix, which produces a random distribution of pit depths based on the occurrence of co-operative corrosion near inclusion clusters.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Bio-Inspired Cementation of Soil Using Plant Enzyme

Description

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme,

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand. The urease catalyzes the synthesis of carbonate from urea, and the carbonate then bonds with a dissociated calcium ion and precipitates from the solution as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This precipitate can form small crystal bridges at contacts between sand grains that lock the sand grains in place. Using enzyme induced carbonate precipitation we created a cemented sand sample with a maximum compressive strength of 319 kPa and an elastic modulus of approximately 10 MPa. Images from the SEM showed that a major failure mechanism in the cemented samples was the delamination of the CaCO3 from the sand grains. We observed that CaCO3 cementation did not when solutions with high concentrations of CaCl2 and urea were used.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Fatigue crack growth in SiC particle reinforced Al alloy matrix composites at high and low R-ratios by in situ X-ray synchrotron tomography

Description

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer high strength, high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue resistance, while maintaining cost an acceptable level. Fatigue resistance of MMCs depends on many aspects of

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer high strength, high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue resistance, while maintaining cost an acceptable level. Fatigue resistance of MMCs depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R = 0.1) and at high (R = 0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-01

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Reconstruction of heterogeneous materials via stochastic optimization of limited-angle X-ray tomographic projections

Description

X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive means for microstructure characterization in three and four dimensions. A stochastic procedure to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from limited-angle X-ray tomographic projections is presented

X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive means for microstructure characterization in three and four dimensions. A stochastic procedure to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from limited-angle X-ray tomographic projections is presented and its utility is demonstrated by reconstructing a variety of distinct heterogeneous materials and elucidating the information content of different projection data sets. A small number of projections (e.g. 20–40) are necessary for accurate reconstructions via the stochastic procedure, indicating its high efficiency in using limited structural information.

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Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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Crack Injection as a Mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking

Description

Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon

Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon referred to as stress-corrosion cracking. Stress-corrosion cracking is the brittle failure of a normally ductile material occurring in a corrosive environment under a tensile stress. Silver-gold can experience this type of brittle fracture for a range of compositions. The corrosion process in this alloy results in a bicontinuous nanoscale morphology composed of gold-rich ligaments and voids often referred to as nanoporous gold. Experiments have shown that monolithic nanoporous gold can sustain high speed cracks which can then be injected into parent-phase alloy. This work compares nanoporous gold created from ordered and disordered copper-gold using digital image analysis and electron backscatter diffraction. Nanoporous gold from both disordered copper-gold and silver-gold, and ordered copper-gold show that grain orientation and shape remain largely unchanged by the dealloying process. Comparing the morphology of the nanoporous gold from ordered and disordered copper-gold with digital image analysis, minimal differences are found between the two and it is concluded that they are not statistically significant. This reveals the robust nature of nanoporous gold morphology against small variations in surface diffusion and parent-phase crystal structure.
Then the corrosion penetration down the grain boundary is compared to the depth of crack injections in polycrystal silver-gold. Based on statistical comparison, the crack-injections penetrate into the parent-phase grain boundary beyond the corrosion-induced porosity. To compare crack injections to stress-corrosion cracking, single crystal silver-gold samples are employed. Due to the cleavage-like nature of the fracture surfaces, electron backscatter diffraction is possible and employed to compare the crystallography of stress-corrosion crack surfaces and crack-injection surfaces. From the crystallographic similarities of these fracture surfaces, it is concluded that stress-corrosion can occur via a series of crack-injection events. This relationship between crack injections and stress corrosion cracking is further examined using electrochemical data from polycrystal silver-gold samples during stress-corrosion cracking. The results support the idea that crack injection is a mechanism for stress-corrosion cracking.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Experimental Investigations and Machine Learning-Based Predictive Modeling of the Chemo-mechanical Characteristics of Ultra-High Performance Binders

Description

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members like columns, and in structural repair and strengthening. This dissertation aims to elucidate the chemo-mechanical relationships in complex UHP binders to facilitate better microstructure-based design of these materials and develop machine learning (ML) models to predict their scale-relevant properties from microstructural information.To establish the connection between micromechanical properties and constitutive materials, nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy experiments are performed on several cementitious pastes. Following Bayesian statistical clustering, mixed reaction products with scattered nanomechanical properties are observed, attributable to the low degree of reaction of the constituent particles, enhanced particle packing, and very low water-to-binder ratio of UHP binders. Relating the phase chemistry to the micromechanical properties, the chemical intensity ratios of Ca/Si and Al/Si are found to be important parameters influencing the incorporation of Al into the C-S-H gel.
ML algorithms for classification of cementitious phases are found to require only the intensities of Ca, Si, and Al as inputs to generate accurate predictions for more homogeneous cement pastes. When applied to more complex UHP systems, the overlapping chemical intensities in the three dominant phases – Ultra High Stiffness (UHS), unreacted cementitious replacements, and clinker – led to ML models misidentifying these three phases. Similarly, a reduced amount of data available on the hard and stiff UHS phases prevents accurate ML regression predictions of the microstructural phase stiffness using only chemical information. The use of generic virtual two-phase microstructures coupled with finite element analysis is also adopted to train MLs to predict composite mechanical properties. This approach applied to three different representations of composite materials produces accurate predictions, thus providing an avenue for image-based microstructural characterization of multi-phase composites such UHP binders. This thesis provides insights into the microstructure of the complex, heterogeneous UHP binders and the utilization of big-data methods such as ML to predict their properties. These results are expected to provide means for rational, first-principles design of UHP mixtures.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Efficient extended finite element algorithms for strongly and weakly discontinuous entities with complex internal geometries

Description

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials with complex internal geometries. A key contribution of this work is the creation of novel methods designed to automate the incorporation of high-resolution data, e.g. from X-ray tomography, that can be used to better interpret the enormous volume of data generated in modern in-situ experimental testing. Thus new algorithms were developed for automating analysis of complex microstructures characterized by segmented tomographic images.

A centrality-based geometry segmentation algorithm was developed to accurately identify discrete inclusions and particles in composite materials where limitations in imaging resolution leads to spurious connections between particles in close contact.To allow for this algorithm to successfully segment geometry independently of particle size and shape, a relative centrality metric was defined to allow for a threshold centrality criterion for removal of voxels that spuriously connect distinct geometries.

To automate incorporation of microstructural information from high-resolution images, two methods were developed that initialize signed distance fields on adaptively-refined finite element meshes. The first method utilizes a level set evolution equation that is directly solved on the finite element mesh through Galerkins method. The evolution equation is formulated to produce a signed distance field that matches geometry defined by a set of voxels segmented from tomographic images. The method achieves optimal convergence for the order of elements used. In a second approach, the fast marching method is employed to initialize a distance field on a uniform grid which is then projected by least squares onto a finite element mesh. This latter approach is shown to be superior in speed and accuracy.

Lastly, extended finite element method simulations are performed for the analysis of particle fracture in metal matrix composites with realistic particle geometries initialized from X-ray tomographic data. In the simulations, particles fracture probabilistically through a Weibull strength distribution. The model is verified through comparisons with the experimentally-measured stress-strain response of the material as well as analysis of the fracture. Further, simulations are then performed to analyze the effect of mesh sensitivity, the effect of fracture of particles on their neighbors, and the role of a particles shape on its fracture probability.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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In situ electromigration and reliability of Pb-free solders at extremely small length scales

Description

Over the past several years, the density of integrated circuits has been increasing at a very fast rate, following Moore’s law. The advent of three dimensional (3D) packaging technologies enable

Over the past several years, the density of integrated circuits has been increasing at a very fast rate, following Moore’s law. The advent of three dimensional (3D) packaging technologies enable the increase in density of integrated circuits without necessarily shrinking the dimensions of the device. Under such constraints, the solder volume necessary to join the various layers of the package is also extremely small. At smaller length scales, the local cooling rates are higher, so the microstructures are much finer than that obtained in larger joints (BGA, C4). The fraction of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) present in solder joints in these volumes will be larger. The Cu6Sn5 precipitate size and spacing, and Sn grain structure and crystallography will be different at very small volumes. These factors will most certainly affect the performance of the solder. Examining the mechanical behavior and reliability of Pb-free solders is difficult, primarily because a methodology to characterize the microstructure and the mechanics of deformation at these extremely small length scales has yet to be developed.

In this study, Sn grain orientation and Cu6Sn5 IMC fraction, size, and morphology are characterized in 3D, in pure Sn based solder joints. The obtained results show differences in morphology of Sn grains and IMC precipitates as a function of location within the solder joint indicating influence of local cooling rate differences. Ex situ and in situ electromigration tests done on 250 um and 500 um pure Sn solder joints elucidate the evolution of microstructure, specifically Sn grain growth, IMC segregation and surface degradation. This research implements 3D quantification of microstructural features over micro and nano-scales, thereby enabling a multi-scale / multi-characterization approach.

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Date Created
  • 2016