Matching Items (7)

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4D microstructural characterization of electromigration and thermal aging damage in tin-rich solder joints

Description

As the microelectronics industry continues to decrease the size of solder joints, each joint will have to carry a greater current density, making atom diffusion due to current flow, electromigration

As the microelectronics industry continues to decrease the size of solder joints, each joint will have to carry a greater current density, making atom diffusion due to current flow, electromigration (EM), a problem of ever-increasing severity. The rate of EM damage depends on current density, operating temperature, and the original microstructure of the solder joint, including void volume, grain orientation, and grain size. While numerous studies have investigated the post-mortem effects of EM and have tested a range of current densities and temperatures, none have been able to analyze how the same joint evolves from its initial to final microstructure. This thesis focuses on the study of EM, thermal aging, and thermal cycling in Sn-rich solder joints. Solder joints were either of controlled microstructure and orientation or had trace alloying element additions. Sn grain orientation has been linked to a solder joints’ susceptibility to EM damage, but the precise relationship between orientation and intermetallic (IMC) and void growth has not been deduced. In this research x-ray microtomography was used to nondestructively scan samples and generate 3D reconstructions of both surface and internal features such as interfaces, IMC particles, and voids within a solder joint. Combined with controlled fabrication techniques to create comparable samples and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for grain orientation and composition analysis, this work shows how grain structure plays a critical role in EM damage and how it differs from damage accrued from thermal effects that occur simultaneously. Unique IMC growth and voiding behaviors are characterized and explained in relation to the solder microstructures that cause their formation and the possible IMC-suppression effects of trace alloying element addition are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

Description

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing.

For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer is employed. The electrical and structural characterization of hole transfer layers (HTLs) in OSCs reveals MoO3 is the compatible HTL for TAgT anode. In the end, the reactive ink printed Ag film for solar cell contact application is studied by characterizing its electromigration lifetime. A percolative model is proposed and validated for predicting the resistivity and lifetime of printed Ag thin films containing porous structure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Phase-Field Modeling of Electromigration-Mediated Morphological Evolution of Voids in Interconnects

Description

Miniaturization of microdevices comes at the cost of increased circuit complexity and operating current densities. At high current densities, the resulting electron wind imparts a large momentum to metal ions

Miniaturization of microdevices comes at the cost of increased circuit complexity and operating current densities. At high current densities, the resulting electron wind imparts a large momentum to metal ions triggering electromigration which leads to degradation of interconnects and solder, ultimately resulting in circuit failure. Although electromigration-induced defects in electronic materials can manifest in several forms, the formation of voids is a common occurrence. This research aims at understanding the morphological evolution of voids under electromigration by formulating a diffuse interface approach that accounts for anisotropic mobility in the metallic interconnect. Based on an extensive parametric study, this study reports the conditions under which pancaking of voids or the novel void ‘swimming’ regimes are observed. Finally, inferences are drawn to formulate strategies using which the reliability of interconnects can be improved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Quantifying electromigration processes in Sn-0.7Cu solder with lab-scale X-ray computed micro-tomography

Description

For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration

For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration in BGA and flip chip solder interconnects has become a significant interest with reduced individual solder interconnect volumes. A survey indicates that x-ray computed micro-tomography (µXCT) is an emerging, novel means for characterizing the microstructures' role in governing electromigration failures. This work details the design and construction of a lab-scale µXCT system to characterize electromigration in the Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder system by leveraging in situ imaging.

In order to enhance the attenuation contrast observed in multi-phase material systems, a modeling approach has been developed to predict settings for the controllable imaging parameters which yield relatively high detection rates over the range of x-ray energies for which maximum attenuation contrast is expected in the polychromatic x-ray imaging system. In order to develop this predictive tool, a model has been constructed for the Bremsstrahlung spectrum of an x-ray tube, and calculations for the detector's efficiency over the relevant range of x-ray energies have been made, and the product of emitted and detected spectra has been used to calculate the effective x-ray imaging spectrum. An approach has also been established for filtering `zinger' noise in x-ray radiographs, which has proven problematic at high x-ray energies used for solder imaging. The performance of this filter has been compared with a known existing method and the results indicate a significant increase in the accuracy of zinger filtered radiographs.

The obtained results indicate the conception of a powerful means for the study of failure causing processes in solder systems used as interconnects in microelectronic packaging devices. These results include the volumetric quantification of parameters which are indicative of both electromigration tolerance of solders and the dominant mechanisms for atomic migration in response to current stressing. This work is aimed to further the community's understanding of failure-causing electromigration processes in industrially relevant material systems for microelectronic interconnect applications and to advance the capability of available characterization techniques for their interrogation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effect of grain orientation on electromigration in Sn-0.7Cu solder joints

Description

Microelectronic industry is continuously moving in a trend requiring smaller and smaller devices and reduced form factors with time, resulting in new challenges. Reduction in device and interconnect solder bum

Microelectronic industry is continuously moving in a trend requiring smaller and smaller devices and reduced form factors with time, resulting in new challenges. Reduction in device and interconnect solder bump sizes has led to increased current density in these small solders. Higher level of electromigration occurring due to increased current density is of great concern affecting the reliability of the entire microelectronics systems. This paper reviews electromigration in Pb- free solders, focusing specifically on Sn0.7wt.% Cu solder joints. Effect of texture, grain orientation, and grain-boundary misorientation angle on electromigration and intermetallic compound (IMC) formation is studied through EBSD analysis performed on actual C4 bumps.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Properties of cerium containing lead free solder

Description

With increasing concerns of the intrinsic toxicity of lead (Pb) in electronics, a series of tin (Sn) based alloys involving silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been proposed as replacements

With increasing concerns of the intrinsic toxicity of lead (Pb) in electronics, a series of tin (Sn) based alloys involving silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been proposed as replacements for Pb-Sn solder and widely accepted by industry. However, they have a higher melting point and often exhibit poorer damage tolerance than Pb-Sn alloys. Recently, a new class of alloys with trace amount of rare-earth (RE) elements has been discovered and investigated. In previous work from Prof. Chawla's group, it has been shown that cerium (Ce)-based Pb-free solder are less prone to oxidation and Sn whiskering, and exhibit desirable attributes of microstructural refinement and enhanced ductility relative to lanthanum (La)-based Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) alloy. Although the formation of RESn3 was believed to be directly responsible for the enhanced ductility in RE-containing SAC solder by allowing microscopic voids to nucleate throughout the solder volume, this cavitation-based mechanism needs to be validated experimentally and numerically. Additionally, since the previous study has exhibited the realistic feasibility of Ce-based SAC lead-free solder alloy as a replacement to conventional SAC alloys, in this study, the proposed objective focuses on the in in-depth understanding of mechanism of enhanced ductility in Ce-based SAC alloy and possible issues associated with integration of this new class of solder into electronic industry, including: (a) study of long-term thermal and mechanical stability on industrial metallization, (b) examine the role of solder volume and wetting behavior of the new solder, relative to Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys, (c) conduct experiments of new solder alloys in the form of mechanical shock and electromigration. The research of this new class alloys will be conducted in industrially relevant conditions, and the results would serve as the first step toward integration of these new, next generation solders into the industry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Electromigration in gold interconnects

Description

Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization

Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (GaAs) was required in the development of high-powered radio frequency (RF) compound semiconductor devices operating at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on GaAs devices because it uniquely forms a very low resistance ohmic contact and gold interconnects have superior electrical and thermal conductivity properties. Gold (Au) was also believed to have improved resistance to electromigration due to its higher melting temperature, yet electromigration reliability data on passivated Au interconnects is scarce and inadequate in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the electromigration lifetimes of passivated Au interconnects under precisely controlled stress conditions with statistically relevant quantities to obtain accurate model parameters essential for extrapolation to normal operational conditions. This research objective was accomplished through measurement of electromigration lifetimes of large quantities of passivated electroplated Au interconnects utilizing high-resolution in-situ resistance monitoring equipment. Application of moderate accelerated stress conditions with a current density limited to 2 MA/cm2 and oven temperatures in the range of 300°C to 375°C avoided electrical overstress and severe Joule-heated temperature gradients. Temperature coefficients of resistance (TCRs) were measured to determine accurate Joule-heated Au interconnect film temperatures. A failure criterion of 50% resistance degradation was selected to prevent thermal runaway and catastrophic metal ruptures that are problematic of open circuit failure tests. Test structure design was optimized to reduce resistance variation and facilitate failure analysis. Characterization of the Au microstructure yielded a median grain size of 0.91 ìm. All Au lifetime distributions followed log-normal distributions and Black's model was found to be applicable. An activation energy of 0.80 ± 0.05 eV was measured from constant current electromigration tests at multiple temperatures. A current density exponent of 1.91 was extracted from multiple current densities at a constant temperature. Electromigration-induced void morphology along with these model parameters indicated grain boundary diffusion is dominant and the void nucleation mechanism controlled the failure time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013