Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase Receptor A (pGC-A) is an atrial natriuretic peptide receptor, which plays a vital role in controlling cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine functions. The extracellular domain of pGC-A interacts with natriuretic peptides and triggers the intracellular guanylyl cyclase domain to convert GTP to cGMP. To effectively develop a method that can regulate pGC-A, structural information regarding its intact form is necessary. Currently, only the extracellular domain structure of rat pGC-A has been determined. However, structural data regarding the transmembrane domain, as well as functional intracellular domain regions, need to be elucidated.This dissertation presents detailed information regarding pGC-A expression and optimization in the baculovirus expression vector system, along with the first purification method for purifying functional intact human pGC-A. The first in vitro evidence of a purified intact human pGC-A tetramer was detected in detergent micellar solution. Intact pGC-A is currently proposed to function as a homodimer. Upon analyzing my findings and acknowledging that dimer formation is required for pGC-A functionality, I proposed the first tetramer complex model composed of two functional subunits (homodimer). Forming tetramer complexes on the cell membrane increases pGC-A binding efficiency and ligand sensitivity. Currently, a two-step mechanism has been proposed for ATP-dependent pGC-A signal transduction. Based on cGMP functional assay results, it can be suggested that the binding ligand also moderately activates pGC-A, and that ATP is not crucial for the activation of guanylyl cyclase. Instead, three modulators can regulate different activation levels in intact pGC-A. Crystallization of purified intact pGC-A was performed to determine its structure. During the crystallization condition screening process, I successfully selected seven promising initial crystallization conditions for intact human pGC-A crystallization. One selected condition led to the formation of excellent needle-shaped crystals. During the serial crystallography diffraction experiment, five diffraction patterns were detected. The highest diffraction resolution spot reached 3 Å. This work will allow the determination of the intact human pGC-A structure while also providing structural information on the protein signal transduction mechanism. Further structural knowledge may potentially lead to improved drug design. More precise mutation experiments could help verify the current pGC-A signal transduction and activation mechanism.
- Structural-Based Study of Intact Human Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase Receptor A (pGC-A) and Biophysical Characterization
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