Matching Items (25)

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A Simple Platform for the Rapid Development of Antimicrobials

Description

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development of new antimicrobials. The goal was to produce in as little as one week thousands of doses of an intervention for a new pathogen. We tested the feasibility of a system based on antimicrobial synbodies. The system involves creating an array of 100 peptides that have been selected for broad capability to bind and/or kill viruses and bacteria. The peptides are pre-screened for low cell toxicity prior to large scale synthesis. Any pathogen is then assayed on the chip to find peptides that bind or kill it. Peptides are combined in pairs as synbodies and further screened for activity and toxicity. The lead synbody can be quickly produced in large scale, with completion of the entire process in one week.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-14

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Peptide Sequencing Directly on Solid Surfaces Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry

Description

There are an increasing variety of applications in which peptides are both synthesized and used attached to solid surfaces. This has created a need for high throughput sequence analysis directly

There are an increasing variety of applications in which peptides are both synthesized and used attached to solid surfaces. This has created a need for high throughput sequence analysis directly on surfaces. However, common sequencing approaches that can be adapted to surface bound peptides lack the throughput often needed in library-based applications. Here we describe a simple approach for sequence analysis directly on solid surfaces that is both high speed and high throughput, utilizing equipment available in most protein analysis facilities. In this approach, surface bound peptides, selectively labeled at their N-termini with a positive charge-bearing group, are subjected to controlled degradation in ammonia gas, resulting in a set of fragments differing by a single amino acid that remain spatially confined on the surface they were bound to. These fragments can then be analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry, and the peptide sequences read directly from the resulting spectra.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-19

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Entropy is a Simple Measure of the Antibody Profile and is an Indicator of Health Status: A Proof of Concept

Description

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This immunosignature technology is unbiased in displaying antibody diversity relative to natural sequence space, and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential for a wide variety of diseases and vaccines. Here we show that a global measure such as Shannon’s entropy can be calculated for each immunosignature. The immune entropy was measured across a diverse set of 800 people and in 5 individuals over 3 months. The immune entropy is affected by some population characteristics and varies widely across individuals. We find that people with infections or breast cancer, generally have higher entropy values than non-diseased individuals. We propose that the immune entropy as measured from immunosignatures may be a simple method to monitor health in individuals and populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-22

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Scalable high-density peptide arrays for comprehensive health monitoring

Description

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies to report on health fluctuations. Recently, we demonstrated that peptide microarrays can do this through antibody signatures (immunosignatures). Unfortunately, printed microarrays are not scalable. Here we demonstrate a platform based on fabricating microarrays (~10 M peptides per slide, 330,000 peptides per assay) on silicon wafers using equipment common to semiconductor manufacturing. The potential of these microarrays for comprehensive health monitoring is verified through the simultaneous detection and classification of six different infectious diseases and six different cancers. Besides diagnostics, these high-density peptide chips have numerous other applications both in health care and elsewhere.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-03

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Adjuvant-Mediated Epitope Specificity and Enhanced Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Targeting Dengue Virus Envelope Protein

Description

The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of

The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of LT derivatives, including in vitro-generated non-toxic mutant forms, little is known about the capacity of these adjuvants to modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies directed against antigens. This study characterizes the role of LT and its non-toxic B subunit (LTB) in the modulation of antibody responses to a coadministered antigen, the dengue virus (DENV) envelope glycoprotein domain III (EDIII), which binds to surface receptors and mediates virus entry into host cells. In contrast to non-adjuvanted or alum-adjuvanted formulations, antibodies induced in mice immunized with LT or LTB showed enhanced virus-neutralization effects that were not ascribed to a subclass shift or antigen affinity. Nonetheless, immunosignature analyses revealed that purified LT-adjuvanted EDIII-specific antibodies display distinct epitope-binding patterns with regard to antibodies raised in mice immunized with EDIII or the alum-adjuvanted vaccine. Notably, the analyses led to the identification of a specific EDIII epitope located in the EF to FG loop, which is involved in the entry of DENV into eukaryotic cells. The present results demonstrate that LT and LTB modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies generated after immunization with coadministered antigens that, in the case of EDIII, was associated with the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. These results open perspectives for the more rational development of vaccines with enhanced protective effects against DENV infections.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-25

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A Technology for Developing Synbodies with Antibacterial Activity

Description

The rise in antibiotic resistance has led to an increased research focus on discovery of new antibacterial candidates. While broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely pursued, there is evidence that resistance arises

The rise in antibiotic resistance has led to an increased research focus on discovery of new antibacterial candidates. While broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely pursued, there is evidence that resistance arises in part from the wide spread use of these antibiotics. Our group has developed a system to produce protein affinity agents, called synbodies, which have high affinity and specificity for their target. In this report, we describe the adaptation of this system to produce new antibacterial candidates towards a target bacterium. The system functions by screening target bacteria against an array of 10,000 random sequence peptides and, using a combination of membrane labeling and intracellular dyes, we identified peptides with target specific binding or killing functions. Binding and lytic peptides were identified in this manner and in vitro tests confirmed the activity of the lead peptides. A peptide with antibacterial activity was linked to a peptide specifically binding Staphylococcus aureus to create a synbody with increased antibacterial activity. Subsequent tests showed that this peptide could block S. aureus induced killing of HEK293 cells in a co-culture experiment. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the synbody system to discover new antibacterial candidate agents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-01-23

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Cancer Type Specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) Vaccine

Description

In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a cancer type specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) vaccine. A murine breast cancer (mBC) FAST vaccine and a murine pancreatic cancer (mPC) FAST vaccine

In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a cancer type specific FrAmeShifT (FAST) vaccine. A murine breast cancer (mBC) FAST vaccine and a murine pancreatic cancer (mPC) FAST vaccine were tested in the 4T1 breast cancer syngeneic mouse model. The mBC FAST vaccine, both with and without check point inhibitors (CPI), significantly slowed tumor growth, reduced pulmonary metastasis and increased the cell-mediated immune response. In terms of tumor volumes, the mPC FAST vaccine was comparable to the untreated controls. However, a significant difference in tumor volume did emerge when the mPC vaccine was used with CPI. The collective data indicated that the immune checkpoint blockade therapy was only beneficial with suboptimal neoantigens. More importantly, the FAST vaccine, though requiring notably less resources, performed similarly to the personalized version of the frameshift breast cancer vaccine in the same mouse model. Furthermore, because the frameshift peptide (FSP) array provided a strong rationale for a focused vaccine, the FAST vaccine can theoretically be expanded and translated to any human cancer type. Overall, the FAST vaccine is a promising treatment that would provide the most benefit to patients while eliminating most of the challenges associated with current personal cancer vaccines.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Using Technological Models to Decrease Medical/Scientific Costs

Description

Both technological and scientific fields continue to revolutionize in a similar fashion; however, a major difference is that high-tech corporations have found models to continue progressions while still keeping product

Both technological and scientific fields continue to revolutionize in a similar fashion; however, a major difference is that high-tech corporations have found models to continue progressions while still keeping product costs low. The main objective was to identify which, if any, components of certain technological models could be used with the vaccine and pharmaceutical markets to significantly lower their costs. Smartphones and computers were the two main items investigated while the two main items from the scientific standpoint were vaccines and pharmaceuticals. One concept had the ability to conceivably decrease the costs of vaccines and drugs and that was "market competition". If the United States were able to allow competition within the vaccine and drug companies, it would allow for the product prices to be best affected. It would only take a few small companies to generate generic versions of the drugs and decrease the prices. It would force the larger competition to most likely decrease their prices. Furthermore, the PC companies use a cumulative density function (CDF) to effectively divide their price setting in each product cycle. It was predicted that if this CDF model were applied to the vaccine and drug markets, the prices would no longer have to be extreme. The corporations would be able to set the highest price for the wealthiest consumers and then slowly begin to decrease the costs for the middle and lower class. Unfortunately, the problem within the vaccine and pharmaceutical markets was not the lack of innovation or business models. The problem lied with their liberty to choose product costs due to poor U.S. government regulations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Development of Synbody Peptides for PD-L1 Blockade for use as a Cancer Vaccine Adjuvant

Description

PD-L1 blockade has shown recent success in cancer therapy and cancer vaccine regimens. One approach for anti-PD-L1 antibodies has been their application as adjuvants for cancer vaccines. Given the disadvantages

PD-L1 blockade has shown recent success in cancer therapy and cancer vaccine regimens. One approach for anti-PD-L1 antibodies has been their application as adjuvants for cancer vaccines. Given the disadvantages of such antibodies, including long half-life and adverse events related to their use, a novel strategy using synbodies in place of antibodies can be tested. Synbodies offer a variety of advantages, including shorter half-life, smaller size, and cheaper cost. Peptides that could bind PD-L1 were identified via peptide arrays and used to construct synbodies. These synbodies were tested with inhibition ELISA assays, SPR, and pull down assays. Additional flow cytometry analysis was done to determine the binding specificity of the synbodies to PD-L1 and the ability of those synbodies to inhibit the PD-L1/PD-1 interaction. Although analysis of permeabilized cells expressing PD-L1 indicated that the synbodies could successfully bind PD-L1, those results were not replicated in non-permeabilized cells. Further assays suggested that the binding of the synbodies was non-specific. Other tests were done to see if the synbodies could inhibit the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. This assay did not yield any conclusive results and further experimentation is needed to determine the efficacy of the synbodies in inhibiting this interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Simian Barrier Dilemma: Improving Gene Vaccines for the Future

Description

Since its inception in the early 1990s, the concept of gene vaccines, particularly DNA vaccines, has enticed researchers across the board due to its simple design, flexible modification, and overall

Since its inception in the early 1990s, the concept of gene vaccines, particularly DNA vaccines, has enticed researchers across the board due to its simple design, flexible modification, and overall inexpensive cost of manufacturing. However, the past three decades have proven to be less fruitful than anticipated as scientists have yet to tackle the issue of inducing a strong enough response in humans and non-human primates to protect against foreign pathogens, an issue that has since been coined as the “simian barrier.” This appears to be a human/primate barrier as protective vaccines have been produced for other mammals. Despite millions of dollars in research along with some of the world’s brightest minds chipping in to resolve this, there has yet to be any truly viable solution to overcoming this barrier. With current research illustrating effective applications of RNA vaccines in humans, these studies may be uncovering the solution to the largely unsolved simian barrier dilemma. If vaccines using RNA, the transcribed version of DNA, are effective in humans, the problem may be inefficient transcription of the DNA. This may be attributable to a DNA promoter that has insufficient activity in primates. Additionally, with DNA vaccines being even cheaper and easier to manufacture than RNA vaccines, along with having no required cold chain for distribution, this concept remains more promising than RNA vaccines that are further along in clinical trials.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12