Matching Items (212)

134435-Thumbnail Image.png

Determining Magnesium Metal Affinity of Alpha L- Id in pH 5

Description

Integrin is a protein in cells that manage cell adhesion. They are crucial to the biochemical functions of cells. L 2 is one type of integrin. Its I domain is

Integrin is a protein in cells that manage cell adhesion. They are crucial to the biochemical functions of cells. L 2 is one type of integrin. Its I domain is responsible for ligand binding. Scientists understand how Alpha L I domain binds Mg2+ at a pH of 7 but not in acidic environments. Knowing the specificity of integrin at a lower pH is important because when tissues become inflamed, they release acidic compounds. We have cloned, expressed, and purified L I-domain and using NMR analysis, we determined that wild type Alpha L I domain does not bind to Mg2+ at a pH of 5.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

134659-Thumbnail Image.png

Nucleoporin Gle1: Crystallographic Analysis and the Future of Neuron Disease Pathology

Description

Gle1 is an mRNP export mediator with major activity localized to the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein's high preservation across vast phylogenetic distances allows us to approximate

Gle1 is an mRNP export mediator with major activity localized to the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein's high preservation across vast phylogenetic distances allows us to approximate research on the properties of yeast Gle1 (yGle1) with those of human Gle1 (hGle1). Research at Vanderbilt University in 2016, which provides the research basis of this thesis, suggests that the coiled-coil domain of yGle1 is best crystallized in dicationic aqueous conditions of pH ~8.0 and 10\u201420% PEG 8000. Further exploration of crystallizable microconditions revealed a favorability toward lower pH and lower PEG concentration. Following the discovery of the protein's native crystallography conditions, a comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific literature on Gle1 was conducted on the association of Gle1 mutations with neuron disease.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

134567-Thumbnail Image.png

Modifying and Optimizing 1H NMR for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in the nuclear magnetic resonance – amino acid analysis (NMR-AAA) workflow where errors accrue due to lack of an optimized protocol. Hen egg white lysozyme was hydrolyzed using an 800W domestic microwave oven for varying time points between 10-25 minutes, showing minimal protein hydrolysis after extended time periods. Studies on paramagnetic doping with varying amounts of gadolinium chloride for increased NMR resolution resulted in little T1 reduction in a majority of amino acids and resulted in significant line broadening in concentrations above 1µM. The use of the BAYESIL analysis tool with HOD suppressed 1H-NMR spectra resulted in misplaced template peaks and errors greater than 1% for 10 of 13 profiled amino acids with the highest error being 7.6% (Thr). Comparatively, Chenomx NMR Suite (v7.1) analysis resulted in errors of less than 1% for 9 of 13 profiled amino acids with a highest error value of 3.6% (Lys). Using the optimized protocol, hen egg white lysozyme C was identified at rank 1 with a score of 64 in a Gallus gallus species wide AACompIdent search. This technique reduces error associated with sample handling relative to previously used amino acid analysis (AAA) protocols and requires no derivatization or additional processing of the sample prior to analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

134374-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of the prrAB two-component system regulatory effects on the lipid profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis

Description

The prrAB two-component system has been shown to be essential for viability in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. To study this system, several prrAB mutants of Mycobacterium

The prrAB two-component system has been shown to be essential for viability in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. To study this system, several prrAB mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative of Mtb, were created for study. These mutants included a deletion mutant complemented with prrA from Mtb controlled by Pmyc1_tetO, a deletion mutant, and a deletion mutant complemented with prrAB from M. smegmatis controlled by the native prrAB promoter sequence (~167 bp upstream sequence of prrAB). In a previous study, the prrAB deletion mutant clumped excessively relative to the wild-type strain when cultured in a nitrogen-limited medium. To address this irregularity, the lipid profiles of these mutants were analyzed through several experimental methods. Untargeted lipidomic profiles were analyzed by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ESI-MS data suggested the deletion mutant accumulates triacylglycerol species relative to the wild-type strain. This data was verified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and densitometry of the TLC images. The mycolic acid profile of each mutant was also analyzed by TLC but no noteworthy differences were found. High-throughput RNA-Seq analysis revealed several genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathways upregulated in the prrAB deletion mutant, thus corroborating the ESI-MS and TLC data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

134915-Thumbnail Image.png

Design, Purification, and Analysis of Histamine Family Receptors for Crystallization

Description

G protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs, are receptors located within the membrane of cells that elicit a wide array of cellular responses through their interactions with G proteins. Recent advances in

G protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs, are receptors located within the membrane of cells that elicit a wide array of cellular responses through their interactions with G proteins. Recent advances in the use of lipid cubic phase (LCP) for the crystallization of GPCRs, as well as increased knowledge of techniques to improve receptor stability, have led to a large increase in the number of available GPCR structures, despite historic difficulties. This project is focused on the histamine family of receptors, which are Class A GPCRs that are involved in the body’s allergic and inflammatory responses. In particular, the goal of this project was to design, express, and purify histamine receptors with the ultimate goal of crystallization. Successive rounds of optimization included the use of recombinant DNA techniques in E.coli to truncate sections of the proteins and the insertion of several fusion partner proteins to improve receptor expression and stability. All constructs were expressed in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system using Sf9 insect cells, solubilized using n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DDM), and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Constructs were then analyzed by SDS-Page, Western blot, and size-exclusion chromatography to determine their presence, purity, and homogeneity. Along with their expression data from insect cells, the most stable and homogeneous construct from each round was used to design successive optimizations. After 3 rounds of construct design for each receptor, much work remains to produce a stable sample that has the potential to crystallize. Future work includes further optimization of the insertion site of the fusion proteins, ligand screening for co-crystallization, optimization of purification conditions, and screening of potential thermostabilizing point mutations. Success in solving a structure will allow for a more detailed understanding of the receptor function in addition to its vital use in rational drug discovery.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135062-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding the Biochemistry of Different P53 Mutants Having Different Sensitivities to Simvastatin

Description

The p53 gene functions as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation, regulates apoptosis, DNA repair, and normal cell cycle arrest. Mutation of the p53 gene is linked to be prevalent

The p53 gene functions as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation, regulates apoptosis, DNA repair, and normal cell cycle arrest. Mutation of the p53 gene is linked to be prevalent in 50% of all human cancers. In this paper, we are exploring triple negative breast cancer and the effects of simvastatin on tumor growth and survival. Simvastatin is a drug that is primarily used to treat high cholesterol and heart disease. Simvastatin is unique because it is able to inhibit protein prenylation through regulation of the mevalonate pathway. This makes it a potential targeted drug for therapy against p53 mutant cancer. The mechanism behind this is hypothesized to be correlated to aberrant activation of the Ras pathway. The Ras subfamily functions to transcriptionally regulate cell growth and survival, and will therefore allow for a tumor to thrive if the pathway is continually and abnormally activated. The Ras protein has to be prenylated in order for activation of this pathway to occur, making statin drug treatment a viable option as a cancer treatment. This is because it acts as a regulator of the mevalonate pathway which is upstream of protein prenylation. It is thus vital to understand these pathways at both the gene and protein level in different p53 mutants to further understand if simvastatin is indeed a drug with anti-cancer properties and can be used to target cancers with p53 mutation. The goal of this project is to study the biochemistry behind the mutation of p53's sensitivity to statin. With this information we can create a possible signature for those who could benefit from Simvastatin drug treatment as a possible targeted treatment for p53 mutant cancers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135076-Thumbnail Image.png

Construct Design, Protein Expression, and Purification of a Human Dopamine Receptor

Description

The dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) is a Class A GPCR which is essential for signaling in the nervous system, and has been implicated in numerous illnesses. While there are over

The dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) is a Class A GPCR which is essential for signaling in the nervous system, and has been implicated in numerous illnesses. While there are over 50 currently approved drugs which act on D2R, the structure has never been determined in detail. Although crystallography has historically been difficult with GPCRs, in recent years many structures have been solved using lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization techniques. Sample preparation for LCP crystallization typically requires optimization of genetic constructs, recombinant expression, and purification techniques in order to produce a sample with sufficient stability and homogeneity. This study compares several genetic constructs utilizing different promoters, fusion proteins, fusion positions, and truncations in order to determine a high quality construct for LCP crystallization of
D2R. All constructs were expressed using the Bac-to-bac baculovirus expression system, then extracted with n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DDM) and purified using metal affinity chromatography. Samples were then tested for quantity, purity, and homogeneity using SDS-PAGE, western blot, and size-exclusion chromatography. High quality samples were chosen based on insect cell expression levels, purification yield, and stability estimated by the levels of homomeric protein relative to aggregated protein. A final construct was chosen with which to continue future studies in optimization of thermal stability and crystallization conditions. Future work on this project is required to produce a sample amenable to crystallization. Screening of ligands for co-crystallization,
thermostabilizing point mutations, and potentially optimization of extraction and purification techniques prior to crystallization trials. Solving the D2R structure will lead to an increased understanding of its signaling mechanism and the mechanisms of currently approved drugs, while also providing a basis for more effective structure-based drug design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

131161-Thumbnail Image.png

Ionic Liquids in Simplifying Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Description

The goal of this thesis was to simplify the sample preparation process for cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), clearing the way for the imaging of larger biomolecules and further expansion of

The goal of this thesis was to simplify the sample preparation process for cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), clearing the way for the imaging of larger biomolecules and further expansion of the field. Various protic ionic liquids (PILs) were chosen for synthesis according to their pH and other physical properties. After several failed synthesizes, one PIL, cholinium dihydrogen phosphate, was chosen for further testing. This solution was put through a series of vitrification tests in order to understand its crystallization limits. Once limits were understood, cholinium dihydrogen phosphate was combined with ribosomal proteins and viewed under a transmission electron microscope to collect negative stain images. After adjusting the ratio of PIL to buffer and the concentration of ribosomes, images of whole intact ribosomes were captured. Samples were then placed in an EM grid, manually dipped in liquid nitrogen, and viewed using the the cryo-EM. These grids revealed ice too thick to properly image, an issue that was not solved by using a more aggressive blotting technique. Although the sample preparation process was not simplified, progress was made towards doing so and further testing using different techniques may result in success.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131238-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the Stability of DNA Origami Structures in Buffer Solutions

Description

DNA nanotechnology uses the reliability of Watson-Crick base pairing to program and generate two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructures using single-stranded DNA as the structural material. DNA nanostructures show great promise for

DNA nanotechnology uses the reliability of Watson-Crick base pairing to program and generate two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructures using single-stranded DNA as the structural material. DNA nanostructures show great promise for the future of bioengineering, as there are a myriad of potential applications that utilize DNA’s chemical interactivity and ability to bind other macromolecules and metals. DNA origami is a method of constructing nanostructures, which consists of a long “scaffold” strand folded into a shape by shorter “staple” oligonucleotides. Due to the negative charge of DNA molecules, divalent cations, most commonly magnesium, are required for origami to form and maintain structural integrity. The experiments in this paper address the discrepancy between salt concentrations required for origami stability and the salt concentrations present in living systems. The stability of three structures, a two-dimensional triangle, a three-dimensional solid cuboid and a three-dimensional wireframe icosahedron were examined in buffer solutions containing various concentrations of salts. In these experiments, DNA origami structures remained intact in low-magnesium conditions that emulate living cells, supporting their potential for widespread biological application in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

135905-Thumbnail Image.png

Asthma ICAM-1 2: The Effects of Vitamin C on s-ICAM Expression

Description

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of 4 subjects. One group was the vitamin C group (VC) and the other was the placebo group (PL). The study was analyzed through observing concentrations of biomolecules present within samples of blood plasma and nasal lavages. These included vitamin C, sICAM-1 expression, and histamine. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from this study. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.3, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. For Nasal ICAM p=0.5 at Day 0, p=0.4 at Day 4, and p=0.9 at Day 18. For the Histamine samples p=0.9 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from both studies. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.8, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. The change of vitamin C at the end of this study and the combined data both had a P-value that was calculated to be lower than 0.05, which meant that this change was significant because it was due to the intervention and not chance. For Nasal ICAM samples p=0.7 at Day 0, p=0.7 at Day 4, and p=1 at Day 18. For the Histamine p=0.7 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. This study carries various implications although the study data was unable to show much significance. This was the second study to test this, and as more research is done, and the sample size grows, one will be able to observe whether this really is the mechanism through which vitamin C plays a role in immunological functions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12