Rhodoferax antarcticus strain ANT.BR, a purple nonsulfur bacterium isolated from a microbial mat in Ross Island, Antarctica, is the first described anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that is adapted to cold habitats and is the first beta-proteobacterium to undergo complete genome sequencing. R. antarcticus has unique absorption spectra and there are no obvious intracytoplasmic membranes in cells grown phototrophically, even under low light intensity. Analysis of the finished genome sequence reveals a single chromosome (3,809,266 bp) and a large plasmid (198,615 bp) that together harbor 4,262 putative genes. The genome contains two types of Rubiscos, Form IAq and Form II, which are known to exhibit quite different kinetic properties in other bacteria. The presence of multiple Rubisco forms could give R. antarcticus high metabolic flexibility in diverse environments. Annotation of the complete genome sequence along with previous experimental results predict the presence of structural genes for three types of light-harvesting (LH) complexes, LH I (B875), LH II (B800/850), and LH III (B800/820). There is evidence that expression of genes for the LH II complex might be inhibited when R. antarcticus is under low temperature and/or low light intensity. These interesting condition-dependent light-harvesting apparatuses and the control of their expression are very valuable for the further understanding of photosynthesis in cold environments. Finally, R. antarcticus exhibits a highly motile lifestyle. The genome content and organization of all putative polar flagella genes are characterized and discussed.
- Genome sequencing and analysis of the psychrophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodoferax antarcticus sp. ANT.BR
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