The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between school music participation in choral and instrumental ensembles--by socioeconomic status, gender, and race--and a composite measure of academic achievement.

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    Bush, Jeffrey E., Jere T. Humphreys, Douglas Allen, and Sharon Lohr. “National Levels of School Music Ensemble Participation and Relationships With Academic Achievement.” In Proceedings of the 3rd Asia-Pacific Symposium on Music Education Research & International Symposium on ‘Uragoe’ and Gender, vol. 2, ed. Yoko Minami and Masakazu Shinzano, pp. 26-31. Nagoya, Japan: Aichi University of Education, [2001].

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