Challenges in Modulation Doping of MoO3 on Hydrogen Terminated Diamond with HfO2 Interfacial Layer

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Description
Diamond transistors are promising as high-power and high-frequency devices having higher efficiencies than conventional transistors. Diamond possesses superior electronic properties, such as a high bandgap (5.47 eV), high breakdown voltage (>10 MV cm−1 ), high electron and hole mobilities [4500

Diamond transistors are promising as high-power and high-frequency devices having higher efficiencies than conventional transistors. Diamond possesses superior electronic properties, such as a high bandgap (5.47 eV), high breakdown voltage (>10 MV cm−1 ), high electron and hole mobilities [4500 and 3800 cm2 V−1 · s−1, respectively], high electron and hole saturation velocities (1.5 × 107 and 1.05 × 107 cm s−1, respectively), and high thermal conductivity [22 W cm−1 · K−1], compared to conventional semiconductors. Reportedly, the diamond field-effect transistors (FETs) have shown transition frequencies (fT) of 45 and 70 GHz, maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 120 GHz, and radiofrequency (RF) power densities of 2.1 and 3.8 W mm−1 at 1 GHz. A two-dimensional-hole-gas (2DHG) surface channel forms on H-diamond by transfer doping from adsorbates/dielectrics in contact with H-diamond surface. However, prior studies indicate that charge transfer at the dielectric/ H-diamond interface could result in relatively low mobility attributed to interface scattering from the transferred negative charge to acceptor region. H-terminated diamond exhibits a negative electron affinity (NEA) of -1.1 to -1.3 eV, which is crucial to enable charge transfer doping. To overcome these limitations modulation doping, that is, selective doping, that leads to spatial separation of the MoO3 acceptor layer from the hole channel on H-diamond has been proposed. Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) was used as dielectric as it has electron affinity of 5.9eV and could align its conduction band minimum (CBM) below the valence band maximum (VBM) of H-terminated diamond. The band alignment provides the driving potential for charge transfer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was used as interfacial layer since it is a high-k oxide insulator (∼25), having large Eg (5.6 eV), high critical breakdown field, and high thermal stability. This study presents photoemission measurements of the electronic band alignments of the MoO3/HfO2/H-diamond layer structure to gain insight into the driving potential for the negative charge transfer and the location of the negative charges near the interface, in the HfO2 layer or in the MoO3 layer. The diamond hole concentration, mobility, and sheet resistance were characterized for MoO3/HfO2/H-Diamond with HfO2 layers of 0, 2 and 4 nm thickness.
Date Created
2024
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Study of Thermophysical Properties of the Slag to Predict the Slag Foaming Model: Effect of Cr2O3 Addition in EAF Slags

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The characterization of interface properties in molten slag is crucial for understanding the interface phenomenon and the reactions between slag and metal. This study focuses on examining the influence of Cr2O3, an important surface active oxide, on the wettability and

The characterization of interface properties in molten slag is crucial for understanding the interface phenomenon and the reactions between slag and metal. This study focuses on examining the influence of Cr2O3, an important surface active oxide, on the wettability and surface tension of slag. Industrial Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) slag with two different Cr2O3 contents (1 wt% and 3 wt%) was investigated using the sessile drop measurement technique at a high temperature of 1650°C. For the preparation of 3 wt% Cr2O3-doped slags, the following crucibles were used: Al2O3, Mo, and MgO. The behavior of crucibles, the dissolution process as well as its effect on the slag thermophysical properties were studied. For the evaluation of surface tension, Mo and MgO substrates were used. The contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method, and the surface tension was calculated using the Young-Laplace-based software. The interaction and wettability behavior between the slag and different substrates was studied. The effects of Cr2O3 content, in correlation with Al2O3, Mo, and MgO, as well as temperature, on the surface tension, and phase formation were analyzed using FactSage 8.2. The results indicate an increase in the formation of solid phases with Al2O3 and Mo dissolution into the slag. The composition of the MoO3 is confirmed with the XRF and EDS analysis. Furthermore, an increase in the formation of the spinel phase was observed with the addition of chromium, which is confirmed via XRD. The increase in the CaCrMo-oxide-based spinel led to a decrease in the surface tension of the slag. The surface tension of the slag pre-melted in a Mo, decreases as the Cr2O3 content increases. The effects of the amounts of Cr2O3 in correlation with Al2O3, MgO, and MoO3 on the slag foaming index were determined using the existing models in the literature.
Date Created
2023
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Neutron Transmutation Doping of Two Dimensional Materials

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Description
Doping is the cornerstone of Semiconductor technology, enabling the functionalities of modern digital electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have tunable direct bandgaps, strong many-body interactions, and promising applications in future quantum information sciences, optoelectronic, spintronic, and valleytronic devices.

Doping is the cornerstone of Semiconductor technology, enabling the functionalities of modern digital electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have tunable direct bandgaps, strong many-body interactions, and promising applications in future quantum information sciences, optoelectronic, spintronic, and valleytronic devices. However, their wafer-scale synthesis and precisely controllable doping are challenging. Moreover, there is no fixed framework to identify the doping concentration, which impedes their process integration for future commercialization. This work utilizes the Neutron Transmutation Doping technique to control the doping uniformly and precisely in TMDCs. Rhenium and Tin dopants are introduced in Tungsten- and Indium-based Chalcogenides, respectively. Fine-tuning over 0.001% doping level is achieved. Precise analytical techniques such as Gamma spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry are used to quantify ultra-low doping levels ranging from 0.005-0.01% with minimal error. Dopants in 2D TMDCs often exhibit a broad stokes-shifted emission, with high linewidths, due to extrinsic effects such as substrate disorder and surface adsorbates. A well-defined bound exciton emission induced by Rhenium dopants in monolayer WSe2 and WS2 at liquid nitrogen temperatures is reported along with specific annealing regimes to minimize the defects induced in the Neutron Transmutation process. This work demonstrates a framework for Neutron Doping in 2D materials, which can be a scalable process for controlling doping and doping-induced effects in 2D materials.
Date Created
2023
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Diamond: An Ultra-Wide Band Gap Semiconductor for High Power Applications

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Description
Wide Bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials are shaping day-to-day technologyby introducing powerful and more energy responsible devices. These materials have opened the door for building basic semiconductor devices which are superior in terms of handling high voltages, high currents, power, and temperature which

Wide Bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials are shaping day-to-day technologyby introducing powerful and more energy responsible devices. These materials have opened the door for building basic semiconductor devices which are superior in terms of handling high voltages, high currents, power, and temperature which is not possible using conventional silicon technology. As the research continues in the field of WBG based devices, there is a potential chance that the power electronics industry can save billions of dollars deploying energy-efficient circuits in high power conversion electronics. Diamond, silicon carbide and gallium nitride are the top three contenders among which diamond can significantly outmatch others in a variety of properties. However, diamond technology is still in its early phase of development and there are challenges involved in many aspects of processing a successful integrated circuit. The work done in this research addresses three major aspects of problems related to diamond technology. In the first part, the applicability of compact modeling and Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) modeling technique for diamond Schottky p-i-n diodes has been demonstrated. The compact model accurately predicts AC, DC and nonlinear behavior of the diode required for fast circuit simulation. Secondly, achieving low resistance ohmic contact onto n-type diamond is one of the major issues that is still an open research problem as it determines the performance of high-power RF circuits and switching losses in power converters circuits. So, another portion of this thesis demonstrates the achievement of very low resistance ohmic contact (~ 10-4 Ω⋅cm2) onto n-type diamond using nano crystalline carbon interface layer. Using the developed TCAD and compact models for low resistance contacts, circuit level predictions show improvements in RF performance. Lastly, an initial study of breakdown characteristics of diamond and cubic boron nitride heterostructure is presented. This study serves as a first step for making future transistors using diamond and cubic boron nitride – a very less explored material system in literature yet promising for extreme circuit applications involving high power and temperature.
Date Created
2023
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Processes and Properties Refinement of Photovoltaic Hybrid Perovskites and Their Integration into Solar Cells

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Perovskite solar cells are one of the rising stars in the solar cell industry. This thesis explores several approaches to enhance the properties of the perovskite layer and the solar cell devices in which they operate. They include studies of

Perovskite solar cells are one of the rising stars in the solar cell industry. This thesis explores several approaches to enhance the properties of the perovskite layer and the solar cell devices in which they operate. They include studies of different antisolvent additives during spin coating of triple cation perovskites, the use of surfactants to improve the quality of perovskite film microstructures, the applicability of a new fabrication process, and the value of post-deposition thermal and chemical annealing processes.This thesis experimentally analyzes different antisolvents, viz., ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, toluene, and chlorobenzene. It focuses on the antisolvent-assisted crystallization method to achieve homogenous nucleation of the perovskite film. Of all the antisolvents, ethyl acetate-treated films gave the best-performing device, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 15.5%. This thesis also analyzes the effects of mixed antisolvents on the qualities of triple-cation perovskites. Different solution concentrations of chlorobenzene in ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in ethyl acetate are optimized for optimal supersaturation to achieve enlarged perovskite grains. Evaluations are discussed in the context of solution polarity and boiling point of the antisolvents, where 25% chlorobenzene in ethyl acetate antisolvent mixture shows the best film properties. Another study discusses a new fabrication process called electrical field-assisted direct ink deposition for large-scale printing of perovskite solar cells. This process involves the formation of nanodroplets under an electrical field deposited onto ITO/glass substrates. As a result, smooth Poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate layers are ii produced with an average effective electrical resistivity of 4.15104  0.26 -m compared to that of spin-coated films. A successive chapter discusses the studies of the electrical field-assisted direct ink deposition of the photoactive CH3NH3PbI2 (MAPbI3) layer. Its focus is on the post-deposition chemical annealing of the MAPbI3 films in methylamine gas, termed as methylamine gas-assisted healing and growth of perovskite films. This treatment improved the smoothness, reduced porosity, increased density, and generated more uniform grain sizes. Moreover, it improved the inter-grain boundary contacts by eliminating secondary, fine-grained boundary structures. Mechanisms behind the initial liquefaction of the MAPbI3 film's subsequent re-solidification are discussed.
Date Created
2023
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Studies on Microscale Defects in Janus Monolayers

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In the past decade, 2D materials especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDc), have been studied extensively for their remarkable optical and electrical properties arising from their reduced dimensionality. A new class of materials developed based on 2D TMDc that has gained

In the past decade, 2D materials especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDc), have been studied extensively for their remarkable optical and electrical properties arising from their reduced dimensionality. A new class of materials developed based on 2D TMDc that has gained great interest in recent years is Janus crystals. In contrast to TMDc, Janus monolayer consists of two different chalcogen atomic layers between which the transition metal layer is sandwiched. This structural asymmetry causes strain buildup or a vertically oriented electric field to form within the monolayer. The presence of strain brings questions about the materials' synthesis approach, particularly when strain begins to accumulate and whether it causes defects within monolayers.The initial research demonstrated that Janus materials could be synthesized at high temperatures inside a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Recently, a new method (selective epitaxy atomic replacement - SEAR) for plasma-based room temperature Janus crystal synthesis was proposed. In this method etching and replacing top layer chalcogen atoms of the TMDc monolayer happens with reactive hydrogen and sulfur radicals. Based on Raman and photoluminescence studies, the SEAR method produces high-quality Janus materials. Another method used to create Janus materials was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, which utilizes the interaction of sulfur/selenium plume with monolayer to replace the top chalcogen atomic layer in a single step. The goal of this analysis is to characterize microscale defects that appear in 2D Janus materials after they are synthesized using SEAR and PLD techniques. Various microscopic techniques were used for this purpose, as well as to understand the mechanism of defect formation. The main mechanism of defect formation was proposed to be strain release phenomena. Furthermore, different chalcogen atom positions within the monolayer result in different types of defects, such as the appearance of cracks or wrinkles across monolayers. In addition to investigating sample topography, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was used to examine its electrical properties to see if the formation of defects impacts work function. Further study directions have been suggested for identifying and characterizing defects and their formation mechanism in the Janus crystals to understand their fundamental properties.
Date Created
2022
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Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Hierarchical and Nanocrystalline Ni-Y-Zr Alloys

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Description
Microstructure refinement and alloy additions are considered potential routes to increase high temperature performance of existing metallic superalloys used under extreme conditions. Nanocrystalline (NC) Cu-10at%Ta exhibits such improvements over microstructurally unstable NC metals, leading to enhanced creep behavior compared to

Microstructure refinement and alloy additions are considered potential routes to increase high temperature performance of existing metallic superalloys used under extreme conditions. Nanocrystalline (NC) Cu-10at%Ta exhibits such improvements over microstructurally unstable NC metals, leading to enhanced creep behavior compared to its coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. However, the low melting point of Cu compared to other FCC metals, e.g., Ni, might lead to an early onset of diffusional creep mechanisms. Thus, this research seeks to study the thermo-mechanical behavior and stability of hierarchical (prepared using arc-melting) and NC (prepared by collaborators through powder pressing and annealing) Ni-Y-Zr alloys where Zr is expected to provide solid solution and grain boundary strengthening in hierarchical and NC alloys, respectively, while Ni-Y and Ni-Zr intermetallic precipitates (IMCs) would provide kinetic stability. Hierarchical alloys had microstructures stable up to 1100 °C with ultrafine eutectic of ~300 nm, dendritic arm spacing of ~10 μm, and grain size ~1-2 mm. Room temperature hardness tests along with uniaxial compression performed at 25 and 600 °C revealed that microhardness and yield strength of hierarchical alloys with small amounts of Y (0.5-1wt%) and Zr (1.5-3 wt%) were comparable to Ni-superalloys, due to the hierarchical microstructure and potential presence of nanoscale IMCs. In contrast, NC alloys of the same composition were found to be twice as hard as the hierarchical alloys. Creep tests at 0.5 homologous temperature showed active Coble creep mechanisms in hierarchical alloys at low stresses with creep rates slower than Fe-based superalloys and dislocation creep mechanisms at higher stresses. Creep in NC alloys at lower stresses was only 20 times faster than hierarchical alloys, with the difference in grain size ranging from 10^3 to 10^6 times at the same temperature. These NC alloys showed enhanced creep properties over other NC metals and are expected to have rates equal to or improved over the CG hierarchical alloys with ECAP processing techniques. Lastly, the in-situ wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements during quasi-static and creep tests implied stresses being carried mostly by the matrix before yielding and in the primary creep stage, respectively, while relaxation was observed in Ni5Zr for both hierarchical and NC alloys. Beyond yielding and in the secondary creep stage, lattice strains reached a steady state, thereby, an equilibrium between plastic strain rates was achieved across different phases, so that deformation reaches a saturation state where strain hardening effects are compensated by recovery mechanisms.
Date Created
2022
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Role of Solid-state and Non-equilibrium Processing Induced Microstructural Variation on Corrosion Behavior of Light-weight Alloys

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Description
Solid-state and non-equilibrium processings are of great interest to researchers due to their ability to control and refine bulk and/or surface microstructure of metallic alloys and push them to surpass their conventional properties limit. In this dissertation, solid-state processing i.e.,

Solid-state and non-equilibrium processings are of great interest to researchers due to their ability to control and refine bulk and/or surface microstructure of metallic alloys and push them to surpass their conventional properties limit. In this dissertation, solid-state processing i.e., Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE), and non-equilibrium processes i.e., surface mechanical attrition (SMAT) and additive manufacturing (AM) techniques were used to process the magnesium and aluminum alloys respectively. A synergistic investigation of processing-induced microstructural modification and its effect on corrosion resistance was performed using various ex-situ, quasi in-situ, and in-situ electrochemical, microscopy, and spectroscopy characterization techniques. To evaluate the effect of the same processing condition on a range of microstructures, a variety of magnesium alloys such as AZ31B, Mg-3Si, ZK60, and Pure Mg were processed using a novel solid-state processing method, namely ShAPE. It induced a significant grain refinement, homogenized distribution of second phases, and low residual strain in AZ31B alloy, which contributed toward a noble breakdown potential, stable protective film, and hence better corrosion resistance compared to the parent extruded counterpart. However, with variations in composition, volume fraction, and distribution of second phases with Mg-3Si and ZK60 magnesium alloy an opposite response was inferred indicating a strong dependence of corrosion on underlying microstructure compared to a processing condition. Non-equilibrium processes, i.e. SMAT and AM were utilized to process high-strength 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Continuous high energy impacts of hard balls in room temperature (RT SMAT) and liquid nitrogen (LN2 SMAT) flow environment generated a gradient nanocrystalline surface layer with the dissolution of inherent second phase and precipitation of new phases in aluminum 7075 alloys. RT SMAT showed a reduced anodic dissolution rate and improved film resistance, which was attributed to the thicker and composite oxide layer along with new nanoscale precipitates. Lastly, reactive AM was used to process aluminum 7075 and 7050 alloys which resulted in a refined and textureless microstructure. A reduction in corrosion resistance was observed with precipitation of excessive reactive particles (Ti and B4C) in AM alloys compared to wrought counterparts.
Date Created
2022
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High Performance White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

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Description
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been successfully implemented in various display applications owing to rapid advancements in material design and device architecture. Their success in the display industry has ignited a rising interest in applying OLEDs for solid-state lighting applications

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been successfully implemented in various display applications owing to rapid advancements in material design and device architecture. Their success in the display industry has ignited a rising interest in applying OLEDs for solid-state lighting applications through the development of white OLEDs (WOLEDs). However, to enter the market as a serious competitor, WOLEDs must achieve excellent color quality, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) as well as a long operational lifetime. In this research, novel materials and device architectures were explored to improve the performance of single-stack WOLEDs. A new Pt-based phosphorescent emitter, Pt2O2-p2m, was examined as a single emissive emitter for the development of a stable and efficient single-doped WOLED. A bilayer structure was employed to balance the charges carriers within the emissive layer resulting in low efficiency roll-off at high brightness, realizing a peak EQE of 21.5% and EQEs of 20% at 1000 cd m-2 and 15.3% at 7592 cd m-2. A novel phosphorescent/fluorescent, or hybrid, WOLED device architecture was also proposed. To gather a thorough understanding of blue fluorescent OLEDs prior to its use in a WOLED, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of the material selection on the device performance. The use of an anthracene type host demonstrated an improvement to the operational stability of the blue OLED by reducing the occurrence of degradation events. Additionally, various dopant concentrations and blocking materials revealed vastly different efficiency and lifetime results. Finally, a Pd (II) complex, Pd3O8-Py5, with efficient amber-colored aggregate emission was employed to produce a WOLED. Various host materials were investigated to achieve balanced white emission and the addition of an interlayer composed of a high triplet energy material was used to reduce quenching effects. Through this strategy, a color stable WOLED device with a peak EQE of 45% and an estimated LT95 over 50,000 hours at 1000 cd m-2 was realized. The comprehensive performance of the proposed device architecture competes with WOLED devices that are commercially available and reported within the literature domain, providing a strong foundation to further advance the development of highly efficient and stable single-stack WOLEDs.
Date Created
2022
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Origin of Microwave Loss in Dielectric Resonators

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Description
Complex perovskite materials, including Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BZT), are commonly used to make resonators and filters in communication systems because of their low dielectric loss and high-quality factors (Q). Transition metal additives are introduced (i.e., Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+) to act as sintering

Complex perovskite materials, including Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BZT), are commonly used to make resonators and filters in communication systems because of their low dielectric loss and high-quality factors (Q). Transition metal additives are introduced (i.e., Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+) to act as sintering agents and tune their temperature coefficient to zero or near-zero. However, losses in these commercial dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures increase markedly due to spin-excitation resulting from the presence of paramagnetic defects. Applying a large magnetic field (e.g., 5 Tesla) quenches these losses and has allowed the study of other loss mechanisms present at low temperatures. Work was performed on Fe3+ doped LaAlO3. At high magnetic fields, the residual losses versus temperature plots exhibit Debye peaks at ~40 K, ~75 K, and ~215 K temperature and can be tentatively associated with defect reactions O_i^x+V_O^x→O_i^'+V_O^•, Fe_Al^x+V_Al^"→Fe_Al^'+V_Al^' and Al_i^x+Al_i^(••)→〖2Al〗_i^•, respectively. Peaks in the loss tangent versus temperature graph of Zn-deficient BZT indicate a higher concentration of defects and appear to result from conduction losses.Guided by the knowledge gained from this study, a systematic study to develop high-performance microwave materials for ultra-high performance at cryogenic temperatures was performed. To this end, the production and characterization of perovskite materials that were either undoped or contained non-paramagnetic additives were carried out. Synthesis of BZT ceramic with over 98% theoretical density was obtained using B2O3 or BaZrO3 additives. At 4 K, the highest Q x f product of 283,000 GHz was recorded for 5% BaZrO3 doped BZT. A portable, inexpensive open-air spectrometer was designed, built, and tested to make the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique more accessible for high-school and university lab instruction. In this design, the sample is placed near a dielectric resonator and does not need to be enclosed in a cavity, as is used in commercial EPR spectrometers. Permanent magnets used produce fields up to 1500 G, enabling EPR measurements up to 3 GHz.
Date Created
2022
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