category FIVE

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Description
In an attempt to summarize two years worth of work in one hundred and fiftywords... This reflection oriented document categorizes my project, “category FIVE”, into chapters of development and actualization. Accounting for the collaborative nature of the project, I advise

In an attempt to summarize two years worth of work in one hundred and fiftywords... This reflection oriented document categorizes my project, “category FIVE”, into chapters of development and actualization. Accounting for the collaborative nature of the project, I advise that this specific document is only half of what the entire work saw through the eyes of Isabella Lepp. Beginning with background information, moving into making the work, and ending with production and reflection of the work, this document follows a mostly chronological timeline in telling the process of making, “category FIVE”, an immersive dance experience. Enjoy.
Date Created
2024
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The Intergenerational Transmission of Depressive and Anxiety Problems: Bidirectional Associations, Racial/Ethnic Differences, and the Mediating Role of Family Processes

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Depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders for adults and adolescents and can be intergenerationally transmitted from parents to their children. Moreover, depressive and anxiety disorders often develop during adolescence. Additionally, family environment and the parent-child relationshi

Depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders for adults and adolescents and can be intergenerationally transmitted from parents to their children. Moreover, depressive and anxiety disorders often develop during adolescence. Additionally, family environment and the parent-child relationship are significant predictors of mental health among adolescents. Yet, few studies have considered how adolescent depression and anxiety problems may influence the family environment and mental health of parents. Moreover, even fewer studies have examined how depressive and anxious intergenerational pathways may vary by racial/ethnic status. As such, bidirectional effects of parent and adolescent depressive and anxiety problems were investigated using data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study at Time 1 (T1)(Mage = 9.92, n=11,861), Time 2 (T2), and Time 3 (T3). Each follow-up was approximately one-year apart. Multiple path analysis models were used to examined bidirectional associations between parent and adolescent A) depressive problems B) anxiety problems and C) depressive and anxiety problems from T1 to T3 and how family conflict and adolescent-reported parental acceptance at T2 mediated these associations. Measurement invariance testing and multigroup analyses were conducted across non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Black participants to examine if depressive and anxious pathways or measurement differed by racial-ethnic status. Findings revealed that both adolescent and parent depression problems at T1 predicted increases in depression at T3. Greater adolescent or parent anxiety problems at T1 predicted increases in adolescent and parent anxiety problems at T3. Greater family conflict and lower perceived parental acceptance at T2 predicted increases in adolescent depressive problems but did not predict adolescent anxiety problems over time. Parental depressive and anxiety problems at T1 did not predict adolescent-reported parental acceptance at T2 but did predict greater family conflict. Measurement noninvariance was found for family conflict and adolescent depressive problems. Multigroup analyses revealed that the association between both depressive and anxiety problems from T1 to T3 was weaker among Black adolescents compared to White and Hispanic adolescents. In summary, this research contributes valuable insights into the measurement of and relationship between parent and adolescent mental health, family dynamics, and adolescent perceived parental acceptance.
Date Created
2024
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A Project-Based Learning Curriculum for Spanish Heritage Language Learners: Implications for Written and Oral Development

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The field of Heritage Language has experienced a great deal of advancement in the past few decades. Much research effort has been dedicated to analyzing and understanding different aspects of heritage language speakers, but less work has been done in

The field of Heritage Language has experienced a great deal of advancement in the past few decades. Much research effort has been dedicated to analyzing and understanding different aspects of heritage language speakers, but less work has been done in the topic of pedagogical approaches. The few recent studies on pedagogical approaches have focused on the “how” of instruction of grammatical points in the heritage language classroom but dedicated less research efforts to an overall and comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning at the higher education level. Heritage language learners require teaching methodologies that differ from those used with second language students given their unique characteristics and needs. Having a curriculum and class materials that align to the needs of the students is essential in aiding the development and maintenance of the heritage language of the students. This study explores whether the implementation of a Project-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum can result in measurable gains in the development of written and oral skills in intermediate Spanish heritage language students, when compared to a control group that follows a traditional non-project-based methodology. Fluency, complexity, and accuracy in the written and oral samples were analyzed through a variety of indicators. The data collection consisted of a pre, and post writing and oral sample obtained at the beginning and end of the semester. The results showed that the students in the PBL curriculum achieved greater gains in their written skills when compared to the control group but had no effect on oral skills. The PBL group made significant gains in written fluency and complexity, and moderate gains in accuracy. The control group showed moderate gains in written fluency and complexity, and no improvement in accuracy. Neither group achieved statistically significant gains in oral fluency, complexity, or accuracy after one semester of instruction. The results offer implications for the impact that a PBL curriculum can have on heritage language learner’s linguistic development.
Date Created
2024
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Challenges in Modulation Doping of MoO3 on Hydrogen Terminated Diamond with HfO2 Interfacial Layer

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Description
Diamond transistors are promising as high-power and high-frequency devices having higher efficiencies than conventional transistors. Diamond possesses superior electronic properties, such as a high bandgap (5.47 eV), high breakdown voltage (>10 MV cm−1 ), high electron and hole mobilities [4500

Diamond transistors are promising as high-power and high-frequency devices having higher efficiencies than conventional transistors. Diamond possesses superior electronic properties, such as a high bandgap (5.47 eV), high breakdown voltage (>10 MV cm−1 ), high electron and hole mobilities [4500 and 3800 cm2 V−1 · s−1, respectively], high electron and hole saturation velocities (1.5 × 107 and 1.05 × 107 cm s−1, respectively), and high thermal conductivity [22 W cm−1 · K−1], compared to conventional semiconductors. Reportedly, the diamond field-effect transistors (FETs) have shown transition frequencies (fT) of 45 and 70 GHz, maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 120 GHz, and radiofrequency (RF) power densities of 2.1 and 3.8 W mm−1 at 1 GHz. A two-dimensional-hole-gas (2DHG) surface channel forms on H-diamond by transfer doping from adsorbates/dielectrics in contact with H-diamond surface. However, prior studies indicate that charge transfer at the dielectric/ H-diamond interface could result in relatively low mobility attributed to interface scattering from the transferred negative charge to acceptor region. H-terminated diamond exhibits a negative electron affinity (NEA) of -1.1 to -1.3 eV, which is crucial to enable charge transfer doping. To overcome these limitations modulation doping, that is, selective doping, that leads to spatial separation of the MoO3 acceptor layer from the hole channel on H-diamond has been proposed. Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) was used as dielectric as it has electron affinity of 5.9eV and could align its conduction band minimum (CBM) below the valence band maximum (VBM) of H-terminated diamond. The band alignment provides the driving potential for charge transfer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was used as interfacial layer since it is a high-k oxide insulator (∼25), having large Eg (5.6 eV), high critical breakdown field, and high thermal stability. This study presents photoemission measurements of the electronic band alignments of the MoO3/HfO2/H-diamond layer structure to gain insight into the driving potential for the negative charge transfer and the location of the negative charges near the interface, in the HfO2 layer or in the MoO3 layer. The diamond hole concentration, mobility, and sheet resistance were characterized for MoO3/HfO2/H-Diamond with HfO2 layers of 0, 2 and 4 nm thickness.
Date Created
2024
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DNA-templated Chemical Synthesis of Proteins and Polypeptides

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Proteins are among the important macromolecules in living systems, with diverse biological functions and properties that make them greatly interesting to study in both structure and function. The chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to incorporate a wide variety of

Proteins are among the important macromolecules in living systems, with diverse biological functions and properties that make them greatly interesting to study in both structure and function. The chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to incorporate a wide variety of post-translation modifications that can diversify protein functions. It also allows the incorporation of many noncanonical amino acids that enable the study of protein structure and function, as well as the control of their activity in living cells. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on two DNA-templated chemical synthesis approaches for the synthesis of proteins: i) DNA-templated native chemical ligation (NCL), and ii) DNA-templated click chemistry. NCL and its extended version has been used as a powerful tool to obtain proteins; however, it still struggles to make longer proteins due to aggregation and poor yield. To address these issues, a DNA-templated approach is being developed where two peptide fragments are brought into proximity by an oligonucleotide to facilitate the NCL reaction. The sequential ligation of the peptide fragments will result in full-length proteins with increased yield and improved solubility. This research involves synthesis of small molecule auxiliaries, thioester peptides, DNA-peptide conjugates, and ligation of peptides through NCL. This method has the potential to be applied to synthesize large hydrophobic proteins. A DNA-templated click chemistry method was also reported where duplex DNA was utilized as a template for enhancing the copper click reaction between peptide fragments into functional mini-proteins. As a proof of principle, peptide fragments were synthesized with click functional groups and conjugated with distinct DNA handles through a disulfide exchange bioconjugation reaction. The DNA-peptide conjugates were assembled with the template to bring the two peptides into proximity and enhance the effective molarities of the functional groups. The peptides were coupled efficiently using a copper click reaction. The designed DNA-templated method is being implemented to synthesize a designed mini-protein (called LCB1), which can bind tightly to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibit its interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This method allows researchers to introduce multiple non-natural amino acids in the protein and has the potential to extend to larger proteins, synthetic polymers, and DNA-peptide biomaterials.
Date Created
2024
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Redefining Professionalism Pedagogy in Physician Assistant Education: Moving Toward Intersectional Professional Identity Formation

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Description
The physician assistant (PA) profession is lacking in diversity, both in practicing PAs and the PA student population. PA organizations, including the PA Education Association and the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the PA, have been advocating for action

The physician assistant (PA) profession is lacking in diversity, both in practicing PAs and the PA student population. PA organizations, including the PA Education Association and the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the PA, have been advocating for action to address this lack of diversity, and many educational institutions have responded by innovating their recruitment and admissions strategies. Another appropriate response to address the lack of diversity in PA education would be to critically evaluate the curriculum, specifically professionalism curriculum, for inclusiveness. Professional identity formation (PIF) provides a framework for teaching professionalism that focuses on the evolving identities of medical learners (Irby & Hamstra, 2016) as influenced by their individual, relational, and collective identities (Cruess et al., 2015). However, PIF has been critiqued for lacking inclusion of sociocultural contexts (Wyatt et al., 2020). Through this mixed methods action research study, I utilized community of inquiry (CoI; Garrison et al., 1999) as a theoretical framework for creation and facilitation of a professional development workshop for PA educators aimed at evaluating academic medical journal articles focused on the topics of professionalism in medical education, PIF, and PIF experiences in underrepresented in medicine students. My goal was to increase awareness of PIF as a pedagogical framework which has the potential to alter the learning environment toward one of inclusion and belonging. Additionally, through my CoI, I further aimed to expand upon the PIF conceptual framework to include elements of intersectionality by focusing on how sociocultural factors influence student perspectives on professionalism and their PIF process. I used Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior to evaluate participants’ intention to incorporate PIF into their professionalism curricula and to prioritize sociocultural factors in their professionalism pedagogies. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, participant interviews, and workshop session exit questions, I determined that my professional development workshop contributed to an increased likelihood of PA educators to integrate PIF and prioritize sociocultural factors into their professionalism curricula, and further, changed perspectives regarding the definition of professionalism in PA education to include an understanding and appreciation for how professionalism is influenced by a student’s sociocultural factors.
Date Created
2024
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Embodied and Enactive Cognition in Practice: Planning for the Direct Potable Reuse of Wastewater in Arizona

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How can we understand and pursue sustainability transitions that disrupt everyday practices and social norms? This dissertation finds potential answers to this fundamental sustainability governance question in Arizona utilities’ efforts to legitimate wastewater as a drinking water source. Due to

How can we understand and pursue sustainability transitions that disrupt everyday practices and social norms? This dissertation finds potential answers to this fundamental sustainability governance question in Arizona utilities’ efforts to legitimate wastewater as a drinking water source. Due to widespread public concern regarding the direct potable reuse of wastewater (DPR), utilities and other stakeholders have developed innovative governance approaches. By offering tastings of DPR water (often in the form of beer), utilities create spaces for deliberation within a traditionally top-down policy planning paradigm, and furthermore, invite feelings—emotions and bodily sensations—into policymaking. This dissertation explores and advances Arizona's emerging transition to deliberative water governance through three distinct investigations. The first of these, an institutional analysis based on interviews with 34 regional stakeholders and observations at 56 water industry meetings, identifies direct experiences with DPR (e.g., tastings) as a pivotal strategy to institutionalize new wastewater practices. The second investigation examines utility-sponsored initiatives to promote DPR and finds that, instead of assuming that consumers behave as rational choice or bounded rationality would predict, water utilities’ use of drinking water tastings reflects a new normative assumption, termed embodied rationality. The third investigation applies embodied rationality in action research with skeptical consumers and reuse industry stakeholders to co-design an exhibit about DPR that engaged more than 1,100 people. Drawing insights from the literatures of embodied and enacted cognition, practice theory, organizational institutionalism, sustainability transitions management, and design research, this dissertation proposes an analytical approach, normative framework, and practical tools for collaboratively addressing real-world sustainability challenges.
Date Created
2024
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Deep Reinforcement Learning Based Voltage Controls for Power Systems under Disturbances

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Description
In recent years, there has been an increasing need for effective voltage controls in power systems due to the growing complexity and dynamic nature of practical power grid operations. Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques now have been widely explored and

In recent years, there has been an increasing need for effective voltage controls in power systems due to the growing complexity and dynamic nature of practical power grid operations. Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques now have been widely explored and applied to various electric power operation analyses under different control structures. With massive data available from phasor measurement units (PMU), it is possible to explore the application of DRL to ensure that electricity is delivered reliably.For steady-state power system voltage regulation and control, this study proposed a novel deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based method to provide voltage control that can quickly remedy voltage violations under different operating conditions. Multiple types of devices, adjustable voltage ratio (AVR) and switched shunts, are considered as controlled devices. A modified deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) algorithm is applied to accommodate both the continuous and discrete control action spaces of different devices. A case study conducted on the WECC 240-Bus system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method. System dynamic stability and performance after serious disturbances using DRL are further discussed in this study. A real-time voltage control method is proposed based on DRL, which continuously regulates the excitation system in response to system disturbances. Dynamic performance is considered by incorporating historical voltage data, voltage rate of change, voltage deviation, and regulation amount. A versatile transmission-level power system dynamic training and simulation platform is developed by integrating the simulation software PSS/E and a user-written DRL agent code developed in Python. The platform developed facilitates the training and testing of various power system algorithms and power grids in dynamic simulations with all the modeling capabilities available within PSS/E. The efficacy of the proposed method is evaluated based on the developed platform. To enhance the controller's resilience in addressing communication failures, a dynamic voltage control method employing the Multi-agent DDPG algorithm is proposed. The algorithm follows the principle of centralized training and decentralized execution. Each agent has independent actor neural networks and critic neural networks. Simulation outcomes underscore the method’s efficacy, showcasing its capability in providing voltage support and handling communication failures among agents.
Date Created
2024
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Computational Challenges in BART Modeling: Extrapolation, Classification, and Causal Inference

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This dissertation centers on Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART) and Accelerated BART (XBART) and presents a series of models that tackle extrapolation, classification, and causal inference challenges. To improve extrapolation in tree-based models, I propose a method called local Gaussian

This dissertation centers on Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART) and Accelerated BART (XBART) and presents a series of models that tackle extrapolation, classification, and causal inference challenges. To improve extrapolation in tree-based models, I propose a method called local Gaussian Process (GP) that combines Gaussian process regression with trained BART trees. This allows for extrapolation based on the most relevant data points and covariate variables determined by the trees' structure. The local GP technique is extended to the Bayesian causal forest (BCF) models to address the positivity violation issue in causal inference. Additionally, I introduce the LongBet model to estimate time-varying, heterogeneous treatment effects in panel data. Furthermore, I present a Poisson-based model, with a modified likelihood for XBART for the multi-class classification problem.
Date Created
2024
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"Love and Affection from the House of Correction": A People's History of Organizing for Dignity in Arizona Prisons

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This dissertation coheres together over a hundred insurgent testimonies published from within Arizona State Prison Complex – Perryville, the state’s only prison for women. These testimonies tell a people’s history of Arizona’s largest and most public legal intervention for prisoners’

This dissertation coheres together over a hundred insurgent testimonies published from within Arizona State Prison Complex – Perryville, the state’s only prison for women. These testimonies tell a people’s history of Arizona’s largest and most public legal intervention for prisoners’ rights: Parsons v. Ryan. In 2009, after Perryville correctional officers left Marcia Powell to bake to death in the Arizona summer sun, prisoners lit their mattresses on fire to proclaim that their lives were in danger, sparking a wave of resistance, including outside from family members and advocates, which prompted a class action lawsuit against the Arizona Department of Corrections, Rehabilitation, and Re-Entry (ADCRR). After years of prisoners’ calls for a systemic reckoning of the death-producing state punishment system, legal intervention distilled their suffering and demands into a set of discrete allegations. Meanwhile, settlement stipulations continue to implore ADCRR to meet minimum constitutional standards. While the accountability Parsons v. Ryan seeks is limited to the administration of medical care and extreme isolation, testimonies in this people’s history reveal a breadth of systemic violences that encompass and surpass the legal claims. These testimonies, which evidence strategies of care work, protest, and covert documentation, delineate the prison’s function to degrade human dignity and inflict physical and psychological harm in virtually every area of basic survival, including access to food, shelter, hygiene, and personal safety. Through use of the “rebel archive,” the resulting narrative, made possible by virtue of prisoners’ organizing for dignity, invokes a critical analysis of the sublimation of their resistance and demands for a project of liberal carceral care as prison reform.
Date Created
2024
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