Sleep Quality and the Effect on Functional Outcomes
Introduction: Sleep disorders can go undiagnosed if a provider is not asking the right questions; they can be characterized by loud snoring with apneic episodes that never fully wake the person, difficulty falling asleep or daytime fatigue. Poor sleep can affect activities of daily living, job performance and personal relationships. Poor sleep can be difficult to detect because some may consider it a symptom because of their lifestyle. The purpose of this study is to assess participants sleep quality and functional outcomes of poor sleep.
Methods: Primary care providers have an opportunity to screen for sleep disorders as part of the intake process during an office visit. The Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), has been proposed as guide to determine if a sleep disorder is affecting quality of life. This descriptive study randomly recruited 20 participants from a community health center. A 10-question survey was given to individuals over the age of 18 who can write and speak English and either have a body mass index (BMI) over 30, hypertension (HTN) or diabetes type II (DMII). Demographic information evaluated included age, gender, HTN, DMII, BMI>30, marital status, sleeping alone, employment type, race, type of insurance, how many times do they wake up at night, the average number of hours slept per night and does the person work night shift.
Results: The study used a qualitative approach with a descriptive methodology; statistical analysis consisted of proportions, means and standard deviation to describe the study population. Participant age ranged from 33 to 72 years (M=50.1, SD= 11.32). Sixty percent were both female and married/living with partner. Despite being married/living with partner, 50% slept alone. A Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a significant difference in four of the questions in the FOSQ-10 in which functional outcomes were not affected by being sleepy or tired.
Conclusion: The FOSQ-10 may serve a role in identifying patients who might benefit from a sleep study. The inclusion of a sleep disorder screening tool may increase the specificity and sensitivity of the intervention and the ability to yield data that will objectively measure disordered sleep.