Health Care Provider Use of Motivational Interviewing to Address Vaccine Hesitancy in College Students
Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases significantly influence the health and academic success of college students. Despite the known negative impact of these diseases, vaccination rates routinely fall short of national goals and recommendations. Although vaccination decisions are complex, a recommendation from a health care provider is one of the key motivators for individuals receiving a vaccine. Motivational interviewing (MI), a counseling approach primarily used to address substance abuse, can be applied to other health-related behaviors.
Local Problem: Despite previous quality improvement efforts aimed at increasing vaccine rates for influenza, human papillomavirus (HPV), and meningitis B (MenB), vaccinations at large university health centers have been well below benchmarks set by Healthy People 2020.
Methods: This study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and included MI training and regular reinforcement for health care providers to address vaccine hesitancy with college students.
Results: Influenza vaccination rates improved, but HPV vaccine rates remained stable and MenB vaccine rates decreased compared with the previous year. Clinicians demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge of MI techniques after a targeted educational intervention. Repeat measures indicate the potential for sustained improvement when ongoing reinforcement is provided.
Conclusion: MI can be an effective part of a strategy to increase vaccination rates.