Cyberspace has become a field where the competitive arms race between defenders and adversaries play out. Adaptive, intelligent adversaries are crafting new responses to the advanced defenses even though the arms race has resulted in a gradual improvement of the security posture. This dissertation aims to assess the evolving threat landscape and enhance state-of-the-art defenses by exploiting and mitigating two different types of emerging security vulnerabilities. I first design a new cache attack method named Prime+Count which features low noise and no shared memory needed.I use the method to construct fast data covert channels. Then, I propose a novel software-based approach, SmokeBomb, to prevent cache side-channel attacks for inclusive and non-inclusive caches based on the creation of a private space in the L1 cache. I demonstrate the effectiveness of SmokeBomb by applying it to two different ARM processors with different instruction set versions and cache models and carry out an in-depth evaluation. Next, I introduce an automated approach that exploits a stack-based information leak vulnerability in operating system kernels to obtain sensitive data. Also, I propose a lightweight and widely applicable runtime defense, ViK, for preventing temporal memory safety violations which can lead attackers to have arbitrary code execution or privilege escalation together with information leak vulnerabilities. The security impact of temporal memory safety vulnerabilities is critical, but,they are difficult to identify because of the complexity of real-world software and the spatial separation of allocation and deallocation code. Therefore, I focus on preventing not the vulnerabilities themselves, but their exploitation. ViK can effectively protect operating system kernels and user-space programs from temporal memory safety violations, imposing low runtime and memory overhead.