Mathematics of Dengue Transmission Dynamics and Assessment of Wolbachia-based Interventions

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Dengue is a mosquito-borne arboviral disease that causes significant public health burden in many trophical and sub-tropical parts of the world (where dengue is endemic). This dissertation is based on

Dengue is a mosquito-borne arboviral disease that causes significant public health burden in many trophical and sub-tropical parts of the world (where dengue is endemic). This dissertation is based on using mathematical modeling approaches, coupled with rigorous analysis and computation, to study the transmission dynamics and control of dengue disease. In Chapter 2, a new deterministic model was designed and used to assess the impact of local fluctuation of temperature and mosquito vertical (transvasorial) transmission on the population abundance of dengue mosquitoes and disease in a population. The model, which takes the form of a deterministic system of nonlinear differential equations, was parametrized using data from the Chiang Mai province of Thailand. The disease-free equilibrium of the model was shown to be globally-asymptotically stable when a certain epidemiological quantity is less than unity. Vertical transmission was shown to only have marginal impact on the disease dynamics, and its effect is temperature-dependent. Dengue burden in the province is maximized when the mean monthly temperature lie in the range [26-28] C. A new deterministic model was designed in Chapter 3 to assess the impact of the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on curtailing the mosquito population and dengue disease in a population. The model, which stratifies the mosquito population in terms of sex and Wolbachia-infection status, was rigorously analysed to characterize the bifurcation property of the model as well as the asymptotic stability of the various disease-free equilibria. Simulations, using Wolbachia-based mosquito control from Queensland, Australia, showed that the frequent release of mosquitoes infected with the bacterium can lead to the effective control of the local wild mosquito population, and that such effective control increases with increasing number of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes released (up to 90% reduction in the wild mosquito population, from their baseline values, can be achieved). It was also shown that the well-known feature of cytoplasmic incompatibility has very little effect on the effectiveness of the Wolbachia-based mosquito control.