Transmission Line Parameter Estimation using Synchrophasor Data

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Transmission line parameters play an important role in state estimation, dynamic line rating, and fault analysis. Because of this, several methods have been proposed in the literature for line parameter

Transmission line parameters play an important role in state estimation, dynamic line rating, and fault analysis. Because of this, several methods have been proposed in the literature for line parameter estimation, especially using synchrophasor data. However, success of most prior research has been demonstrated using purely synthetic data. A synthetic dataset does not have the problems encountered with real data, such as invariance of measurements and realistic field noise. Therefore, the algorithms developed using synthetic datasets may not be as effective when used in practice. On the other hand, the true values of the line parameters are unknown and therefore the algorithms cannot be directly implemented on real data. A multi-stage test procedure is developed in this work to circumvent this problem.

In this thesis, two popular algorithms, namely, moving-window total least squares (MWTLS) and recursive Kalman filter (RKF) are applied on real data in multiple stages. In the first stage, the algorithms are tested on a purely synthetic dataset. This is followed by testing done on pseudo-synthetic datasets generated using real PMU data. In the final stage, the algorithms are implemented on the real PMU data obtained from a local utility. The results show that in the context of the given problem, RKF has better performance than MWTLS. Furthermore, to improve the performance of RKF on real data, ASPEN data are used to calculate the initial estimates. The estimation results show that the RKF algorithm can reliably estimate the sequence impedances, using ASPEN data as a starting condition. The estimation procedure is repeated over different time periods and the corresponding results are presented.

Finally, the significance of data drop-outs and its impact on the use of parameter estimates for real-time power system applications, such as state estimation and dynamic line rating, is discussed. To address the problem (of data drop-outs), an auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is implemented. The ability of this model to predict the variations in sequence impedances is demonstrated.