Most theories of cognitive control assume goal-directed behavior takes the form of performance monitor-executive function-action loop. Recent theories focus on how a single performance monitoring mechanism recruits executive function - dubbed single-process accounts. Namely, the conflict-monitoring hypothesis proposes that a single performance monitoring mechanism, housed in the anterior cingulate cortex, recruits executive functions for top-down control. This top-down control manifests as trial-to-trial micro adjustments to the speed and accuracy of responses.
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