Matching Items (659)

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Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer

Description

From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they

From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-17

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The Vividness of Happiness in Dynamic Facial Displays of Emotion

Description

Rapid identification of facial expressions can profoundly affect social interactions, yet most research to date has focused on static rather than dynamic expressions. In four experiments, we show that when

Rapid identification of facial expressions can profoundly affect social interactions, yet most research to date has focused on static rather than dynamic expressions. In four experiments, we show that when a non-expressive face becomes expressive, happiness is detected more rapidly anger. When the change occurs peripheral to the focus of attention, however, dynamic anger is better detected when it appears in the left visual field (LVF), whereas dynamic happiness is better detected in the right visual field (RVF), consistent with hemispheric differences in the processing of approach- and avoidance-relevant stimuli. The central advantage for happiness is nevertheless the more robust effect, persisting even when information of either high or low spatial frequency is eliminated. Indeed, a survey of past research on the visual search for emotional expressions finds better support for a happiness detection advantage, and the explanation may lie in the coevolution of the signal and the receiver.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-01-11

Dynamic Characteristics of Parent-Child Interactions: Mediating Role in Relation Between Parental Catastrophizing and Child Chronic Pain

Description

Child chronic pain is both common and consequential and identification of malleable risk factors is a critical step towards developing effective interventions. Existing evidence points to the possibility that parent

Child chronic pain is both common and consequential and identification of malleable risk factors is a critical step towards developing effective interventions. Existing evidence points to the possibility that parent behavior may play a significant role in the development of children’s chronic pain through modeling of pain-related behaviors. An important parental trait that predicts parent behavior in pain contexts is parental pain catastrophizing, which has been linked to child pain outcomes as well as to increased facial pain behavior in both parents and their children during pain induction. Existing research has examined facial pain behavior in aggregate, summarizing facial expressions over the course of an entire dyadic interaction, which does not allow for evaluation of the dynamic interplay between a parent and child. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that higher parental catastrophizing would predict decreased flexibility in emotional dynamics between parent and child (reflected in facial affect during a parent-child interaction that occurs within the context of child pain-induction), which would in turn predict fewer child chronic pain symptoms. The approach used dynamic systems analysis of facial behaviors during the parent-child interaction during the child’s performance of a pain inducing cold pressor task to assess dyadic emotional flexibility. Nine-year old children from a larger sample of twins (N = 30) were video recorded during a cold-water pain task while their parents observed them. Videos of the children and their parent from these interactions were analyzed using facial action unit software (AffDex), into positive, neutral, and negative facial emotional expressions. Synchronized parent and child coded facial data were then analyzed for flexibility using GridWare (version 1.1). Parents completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) to assess parental trait pain catastrophizing and the Body Pain Location/Frequency scale to assess child chronic pain symptoms during the prior three months. Contrary to prediction, parental catastrophizing was related to higher levels of flexibility, and flexibility was unrelated to child chronic pain. Exploratory analyses indicated that children with higher levels of effortful control had more emotionally flexible interactions with their parent during the cold pressor, and emotionally flexible interactions predicting lower levels of children’s negative emotional responses to the acute pain task. suggesting some promising avenues for future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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ECOAcoustic: A VR Experience

Description

Acoustic Ecology is an undervalued field of study of the relationship between the environment and sound. This project aims to educate people on this topic and show people the importance

Acoustic Ecology is an undervalued field of study of the relationship between the environment and sound. This project aims to educate people on this topic and show people the importance by immersing them in virtual reality scenes. The scenes were created using VR180 content as well as 360° spatial audio.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Development of Screening and Education Tool for Social Determinants of Health in Vulnerable Population in Arizona

Description

Background: This paper details the development of screening and education tools for finding Social Determinants of Health (SDH) in Maricopa County’s vulnerable population. SDH is known as structural or physical

Background: This paper details the development of screening and education tools for finding Social Determinants of Health (SDH) in Maricopa County’s vulnerable population. SDH is known as structural or physical differences that hinder everyone to have an equal opportunity for improved health, and one of the steps to overcome the differences is through understanding what SDHs are prevalent in the targeted community, so that the community can develop the needed resources. SDH screening process was developed in collaboration with Student Health Outreach for Wellness (SHOW), a student-run organization whose aim is to provide healthcare for underserved populations. SHOW has a unique multi-disciplinary approach of treating each of their patients, and this screening is planned to be implemented during the treatment.
Methods: A literature review was conducted and SDH screening tool were adapted from known SDH screeners, such as Health Leads, PRAPARE, and CLEAR, to fit to the general population that SHOW serves. Training was also developed to educate the student volunteers who will be conducting the SDH screening and included necessary education about the population and the importance of SDH in general. Training materials include a practice scenario, a resources guide, SMART goal sheet, an introduction to the resource guide, and a process flowchart.
Outcomes: This project consists of different versions of screening tools, a training presentation, activities, handouts, and implementation ideas required to succeed in accurate SDH determination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Relationship Between Interdependence and Creative Efficiency

Description

There is a long, ongoing search for the best way to measure and promote creativity. In this study, participant’s self-reported interdependence with elicited members of their social life (Same-Sex Best

There is a long, ongoing search for the best way to measure and promote creativity. In this study, participant’s self-reported interdependence with elicited members of their social life (Same-Sex Best Friend, Same-Sex Acquaintance, Sibling (or Relative), and Enemy) were collected alongside their performance on several iterations of J.P. Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. It was predicted that higher scores obtained on the fitness interdependence scale would predict higher scores on the creativity tasks, and lower scores on the former would also predict lower scores on the latter. Ultimately, the results did not support our hypothesis that creative efficiency is predicted by an individual’s self-reported interdependence with members of their social circle. Although higher scores on the Same-Sex Best Friend Interdependence, Sibling (Relative) Interdependence, Acquaintance Interdependence, and Enemy Interdependence categories were found to significantly predict a higher number of alternative uses submitted in a creativity task, the fact that these four subcategories predicted the Total Volume score and not the Total Originality score shows that a better design, and more robust methods, must be used to investigate the relationship between interdependence and creative outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material and its Correlation to Sexual Offending

Description

The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the

The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the definitions and history of sexual deviancy and paraphilia, a review of existing research that examines the complex relationship between said materials and criminal behavior, methods individuals use to access sexually-explicit materials, and case studies of individuals whose behavior is relevant to the purposes of this study. There does not appear to be a causal relationship between these two factors. However, there is an intricate, interrelated dynamic between the two that is worth examining more thoroughly. Further research should study the timeline in which sexual offenders first consumed sexually-explicit material, as well as the genesis of their sexually-deviant behaviors. This may lead to a clearer comprehension of their psychosexual criminality. Further understanding will hopefully lead to improved policies proposed by law makers, refined prevention/intervention strategies by law enforcement, and more effective rehabilitative methods for offenders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Immediacy Premium: A Linear Estimator of Hyperbolic Delay Discounting Rate (k).

Description

The estimation of delay discounting rates (k) typically assume that the relative subjective value of a reinforcer declines as a reciprocal function of its delay. Despite the prevalence, estimates of

The estimation of delay discounting rates (k) typically assume that the relative subjective value of a reinforcer declines as a reciprocal function of its delay. Despite the prevalence, estimates of k based on least-squares fits of relative subjective value to the hyperbolic discount function appear to have serious limitations. This curve-fitting method provides curves, which when averaged, may not accurately reflect the individual subjects’ data. The present study used the hyperbolic discounting function to derive a new dependent measure, termed immediacy premium, which is a linear function of delay. By averaging linear rather than reciprocal functions, the averaged data are more representative of individual data, and comparisons between mean data across treatments or samples is more meaningful. Based on data published, the assumptions of least-square based estimates were evaluated for estimation methods based on relative subjective value and immediacy premiums. This analysis yielded mixed support for each method, thus advising for the implementation of both methods when drawing inferences on treatment effects and population differences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Psychological, Ecological, and Ethical Dimensions of Bottlenose Dolphin Captivity

Description

Bottlenose dolphins, or Tursiops truncates, have captured the attention of humans for centuries leading people to keep them in captivity. However, people's love and an increase in knowledge for these

Bottlenose dolphins, or Tursiops truncates, have captured the attention of humans for centuries leading people to keep them in captivity. However, people's love and an increase in knowledge for these creatures have sparked many ethical debates on whether dolphins should be kept in captivity. In this paper, I discuss the different dimensions of bottlenose dolphin captivity focusing on the physiological, psychological, ecological and ethical concerns raised when comparing captive to wild bottlenose dolphins. In an analysis of the scientific literature, I found that captive bottlenose dolphins experience negative physical and psychological effects, including a shorter life span and a decrease in brain size. They also engage in more risky and harmful behaviors. Preexisting brain structures in bottlenose dolphins indicate enhanced emotional processing possibly leading to a more difficult life in captivity. Furthermore, modeling of bottlenose dolphin social networks have found that removal of dolphins from existing populations have negative repercussions for ecological communities, particularly effecting present and future pods due to their complex social systems called fission fusion societies. Furthermore, removal can have a deleterious effect on the environment due to their role as top predators. Available data suggest that bottlenose dolphins should be classified as non-human persons due to their cognitive abilities such as self-awareness, intentionality, creativity, and symbolic communication. This moral classification demands significant human duties and responsibilities to protect these cetaceans. Due to their similarities to humans, these results suggest that keeping bottlenose dolphins in captivity is ethically questionable and perhaps unjustifiable as captivity violates their basic rights.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Student Efficacy for Skill Mastery in Counseling Children: A Service Learning Model

Description

Literature surrounding counselor education supports a constructivist pedagogical perspective and experiential models of counselor training. The purpose of this study is to analyze the experiential component of a 15-week service-learning

Literature surrounding counselor education supports a constructivist pedagogical perspective and experiential models of counselor training. The purpose of this study is to analyze the experiential component of a 15-week service-learning play therapy course, in which six Master of Counseling graduate students simultaneously learned the therapeutic process of play therapy and practiced directive and non-directive skills with children at a local elementary school. At the end of the course, each student submitted a critical incident report describing one experience that occurred during the course that significantly impacted their skill development and mastery. A thematic analysis was conducted using these critical incident reports to assess the impact of the course on the counselors-in-training learning process and outcomes. Five themes were identified in this thematic analysis: use of therapeutic orientations, children's navigation of the counseling process, challenges of navigating new counseling experiences, acknowledgement of children's knowledge/ability to solve their own problems, and unpredictability of sessions. The findings of this study highlight the value of a child-centered therapeutic approach and the need for experiential learning opportunities specifically related to counseling children. Lastly, limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05