A fetus physiologically relies on blood for nutrients given by the mother. Blood supply is provided to a fetus through an umbilical cord having the structure of two pulsatile arteries with smooth muscle surrounding a thin walled vein. The two arteries transport deoxygenated blood from the fetus in the direction of the placenta while the one vein transports oxygenated blood in the direction of the fetus. This process of the movement of blood is continuous throughout the gestation cycle. Conventionally, there are two arterial coils for every one coil of the vein.
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