Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management in the Rural Population: A Project Report

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Background: The global prevalence of all types of diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (Nazir et al., 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and

Background: The global prevalence of all types of diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (Nazir et al., 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) ranks diabetes as the 7th leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated annual expense of $327 billion. Within the rural setting, patients typically have less resources available for the treatment and self-management of their diseases. It is important to explore self-management techniques that can be utilized by patients with type 2 diabetes living in rural areas. Research demonstrating the importance of education, exercise, diet, glucose monitoring, medications, and supportive measures is prominent throughout the literature.

Objective: The purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) applied project is to investigate the effects of delivering biweekly text messages containing diabetes self-management education (DSME) materials to patients in an effort to support successful self-care.

Methods: During an 8 week period, DSME was provided via text messaging, bi-weekly (Sunday and Wednesday), to 23 rural participants with type 2 diabetes, in a family clinic in Payson, Arizona. Participants were asked to complete the Skills, Confidence, and Preparedness Index both pre- and post-intervention to evaluate their knowledge of diabetes self-management.

Results: Twenty-three adults aged 52 to 78 years (M = 64.91) participated in the project. Of the participants, 57% (13/23) were female. The majority of participants had T2DM diagnosis less than 10 years (M=13.8 years). There was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-Skills, Confidence and Preparedness Index questionnaire (p < .001) indicating an improvement in self-efficacy scores post- intervention.

Conclusion: DSME delivered via text message is a cost-effective way to increase patients' self-efficacy and potentially improve their ability to successfully self-manage their disease.