Matching Items (8)

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Stochastic parameterization of the proliferation-diffusion model of brain cancer in a Murine model

Description

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant, aggressive and infiltrative cancer of the central nervous system with a median survival of 14.6 months with standard care. Diagnosis of GBM is made

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant, aggressive and infiltrative cancer of the central nervous system with a median survival of 14.6 months with standard care. Diagnosis of GBM is made using medical imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Treatment is informed by medical images and includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical removal if the tumor is surgically accessible. Treatment seldom results in a significant increase in longevity, partly due to the lack of precise information regarding tumor size and location. This lack of information arises from the physical limitations of MR and CT imaging coupled with the diffusive nature of glioblastoma tumors. GBM tumor cells can migrate far beyond the visible boundaries of the tumor and will result in a recurring tumor if not killed or removed. Since medical images are the only readily available information about the tumor, we aim to improve mathematical models of tumor growth to better estimate the missing information. Particularly, we investigate the effect of random variation in tumor cell behavior (anisotropy) using stochastic parameterizations of an established proliferation-diffusion model of tumor growth. To evaluate the performance of our mathematical model, we use MR images from an animal model consisting of Murine GL261 tumors implanted in immunocompetent mice, which provides consistency in tumor initiation and location, immune response, genetic variation, and treatment. Compared to non-stochastic simulations, stochastic simulations showed improved volume accuracy when proliferation variability was high, but diffusion variability was found to only marginally affect tumor volume estimates. Neither proliferation nor diffusion variability significantly affected the spatial distribution accuracy of the simulations. While certain cases of stochastic parameterizations improved volume accuracy, they failed to significantly improve simulation accuracy overall. Both the non-stochastic and stochastic simulations failed to achieve over 75% spatial distribution accuracy, suggesting that the underlying structure of the model fails to capture one or more biological processes that affect tumor growth. Two biological features that are candidates for further investigation are angiogenesis and anisotropy resulting from differences between white and gray matter. Time-dependent proliferation and diffusion terms could be introduced to model angiogenesis, and diffusion weighed imaging (DTI) could be used to differentiate between white and gray matter, which might allow for improved estimates brain anisotropy.

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  • 2016-05

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Effect of rolling induced anisotropy on fatigue crack initiation and short crack propagation in Al 2024-T351

Description

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue properties has not been studied extensively and it is likely to have a meaningful effect. In this work, fatigue behavior of a wrought Al alloy (2024-T351) is studied using notched uniaxial samples with load axes along either the longitudinal or transverse direction, and center notched biaxial samples (cruciforms) with a uniaxial stress state of equivalent amplitude about the bore. Local composition and crystallography were quantified before testing using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Electron Backscattering Diffraction. Interrupted fatigue testing at stresses close to yielding was performed on the samples to nucleate and propagate short cracks and nucleation sites were located and characterized using standard optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results show that crack nucleation occurred due to fractured particles for longitudinal dogbone/cruciform samples; while transverse samples nucleated cracks by debonded and fractured particles. Change in crack nucleation mechanism is attributed to dimensional change of particles with respect to the material axes caused by global anisotropy. Crack nucleation from debonding reduced life till matrix fracture because debonded particles are sharper and generate matrix cracks sooner than their fractured counterparts. Longitudinal samples experienced multisite crack initiation because of reduced cross sectional areas of particles parallel to the loading direction. Conversely the favorable orientation of particles in transverse samples reduced instances of particle fracture eliminating multisite cracking and leading to increased fatigue life. Cyclic tests of cruciform samples showed that crack growth favors longitudinal and transverse directions with few instances of crack growth 45 degrees (diagonal) to the rolling direction. The diagonal crack growth is attributed to stronger influences of local anisotropy on crack nucleation. It was observed that majority of the time crack nucleation is governed by the mixed influences of global and local anisotropies. Measurements of crystal directions parallel to the load on main crack paths revealed directions clustered near the {110} planes and high index directions. This trend is attributed to environmental effects as a result of cyclic testing in air.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Angle resolved polarization and vibrational studies of transition metal trichalcogenides and related alloys

Description

A new class of layered materials called the transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) exhibit strong anisotropic properties due to their quasi-1D nature. These 2D materials are composed of chain-like structures which

A new class of layered materials called the transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) exhibit strong anisotropic properties due to their quasi-1D nature. These 2D materials are composed of chain-like structures which are weakly bound to form planar sheets with highly directional properties. The vibrational properties of three materials from the TMTC family, specifically TiS3, ZrS3, and HfS3, are relatively unknown and studies performed in this work elucidates the origin of their Raman characteristics. The crystals were synthesized through chemical vapor transport prior to mechanical exfoliation onto Si/SiO¬2 substrates. XRD, AFM, and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the crystallinity, thickness, and chemical signature of the exfoliated crystals. Vibrational modes and anisotropic polarization are investigated through density functional theory calculations and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Particular Raman modes are explored in order to correlate select peaks to the b-axis crystalline direction. Mode III vibrations for TiS3, ZrS3, and HfS3 are shared between each material and serves as a unique identifier of the crystalline orientation in MX3 materials. Similar angle-resolved Raman studies were conducted on the novel Nb0.5Ti0.5S3 alloy material grown through chemical vapor transport. Results show that the anisotropy direction is more difficult to determine due to the randomization of quasi-1D chains caused by defects that are common in 2D alloys. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the vibrational properties of various TMTC materials which is needed to realize applications in direction dependent polarization and linear dichroism.

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  • 2017

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Anisotropy in diffusion and electrical conductivity distributions of TX-151 phantoms

Description

Among electrical properties of living tissues, the differentiation of tissues or organs provided by electrical conductivity is superior. The pathological condition of living tissues is inferred from the spatial distribution

Among electrical properties of living tissues, the differentiation of tissues or organs provided by electrical conductivity is superior. The pathological condition of living tissues is inferred from the spatial distribution of conductivity. Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) is a relatively new non-invasive conductivity imaging technique. The majority of conductivity reconstruction algorithms are suitable for isotropic conductivity distributions. However, tissues such as cardiac muscle and white matter in the brain are highly anisotropic. Until recently, the conductivity distributions of anisotropic samples were solved using isotropic conductivity reconstruction algorithms. First and second spatial derivatives of conductivity (∇σ and ∇2σ ) are integrated to obtain the conductivity distribution. Existing algorithms estimate a scalar conductivity instead of a tensor in anisotropic samples.

Accurate determination of the spatial distribution of a conductivity tensor in an anisotropic sample necessitates the development of anisotropic conductivity tensor image reconstruction techniques. Therefore, experimental studies investigating the effect of ∇2σ on degree of anisotropy is necessary. The purpose of the thesis is to compare the influence of ∇2σ on the degree of anisotropy under two different orthogonal current injection pairs.

The anisotropic property of tissues such as white matter is investigated by constructing stable TX-151 gel layer phantoms with varying degrees of anisotropy. MREIT and Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWI) experiments were conducted to probe the conductivity and diffusion properties of phantoms. MREIT involved current injection synchronized to a spin-echo pulse sequence. Similarities and differences in the divergence of the vector field of ∇σ (∇2σ) among anisotropic samples subjected to two different current injection pairs were studied. DWI of anisotropic phantoms involved the application of diffusion-weighted magnetic field gradients with a spin-echo pulse sequence. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of diffusion tensors were compared to characterize diffusion properties of anisotropic phantoms.

The orientation of current injection electrode pair and degree of anisotropy influence the spatial distribution of ∇2σ. Anisotropy in conductivity is preserved in ∇2σ subjected to non-symmetric electric fields. Non-symmetry in electric field is observed in current injections parallel and perpendicular to the orientation of gel layers. The principal eigenvalue and eigenvector in the phantom with maximum anisotropy display diffusion anisotropy.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A study on an in-process laser localized pre-deposition heating approach to reducing FDM part anisotropy

Description

Material extrusion based rapid prototyping systems have been used to produceprototypes for several years. They have been quite important in the additive manufacturing field, and have gained popularity in research,

Material extrusion based rapid prototyping systems have been used to produceprototypes for several years. They have been quite important in the additive manufacturing field, and have gained popularity in research, development and manufacturing in a wide field of applications. There has been a lot of interest in using these technologies to produce end use parts, and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) has gained traction in leading the transition of rapid prototyping technologies to rapid manufacturing. But parts built with the FDM process exhibit property anisotropy. Many studies have been conducted into process optimization, material properties and even post processing of parts, but were unable to solve the strength anisotropy issue. To address this, an optical heating system has been proposed to achieve localized heating of the pre- deposition surface prior to material deposition over the heated region. This occurs in situ within the build process, and aims to increase the interface temperature to above glass transition (Tg), to trigger an increase in polymer chain diffusion, and in extension, increase the strength of the part. An increase in flexural strength by 95% at the layer interface has been observed when the optical heating method was implemented, thereby improving property isotropy of the FDM part. This approach can be designed to perform real time control of inter-filament and interlayer temperatures across the build volume of a part, and can be tuned to achieve required mechanical properties.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Raman and photoluminescence studies of in-plane anisotropic layered materials

Description

This thesis presents systematic studies on angle dependent Raman and Photoluminescence (PL) of a new class of layered materials, Transition Metal Trichalcogenides (TMTCs), which are made up of layers possessing

This thesis presents systematic studies on angle dependent Raman and Photoluminescence (PL) of a new class of layered materials, Transition Metal Trichalcogenides (TMTCs), which are made up of layers possessing anisotropic structure within the van-der-Waals plane. The crystal structure of individual layer of MX3 compounds consists of aligned nanowire like 1D chains running along the b-axis direction. The work focuses on the growth of two members of this family - ZrS3 and TiS3 - through Chemical Vapor Transport Method (CVT), with consequent angle dependent Raman and PL studies which highlight their in-plane optically anisotropic properties. Results highlight that the optical properties of few-layer flakes are highly anisotropic as evidenced by large PL intensity variation with polarization direction (in ZrS3) and an intense variation in Raman intensity with variation in polarization direction (in both ZrS3 and TiS3).

Results suggest that light is efficiently absorbed when E-field of the polarized incident excitation laser is polarized along the chain (b-axis). It is greatly attenuated and absorption is reduced when field is polarized perpendicular to the length of 1D-like chains, as wavelength of the exciting light is much longer than the width of each 1D chain. Observed PL variation with respect to the azimuthal flake angle is similar to what has been previously observed in 1D materials like nanowires. However, in TMTCs, since the 1D chains interact with each other, it gives rise to a unique linear dichroism response that falls between 2D and 1D like behavior. These results not only mark the very first demonstration of high PL polarization anisotropy in 2D systems, but also provide a novel insight into how interaction between adjacent 1D-like chains and the 2D nature of each layer influences the overall optical anisotropy of Quasi-1D materials. The presented results are anticipated to have impact in technologies involving polarized detection, near-field imaging, communication systems, and bio-applications relying on the generation and detection of polarized light.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Structure and asymmetry in simulations of supernova explosions

Description

There are many lines of evidence for anisotropy at all scales in the explosions of core collapse supernovae, e.g. visual inspection of the images of resolved supernova remnants, polarization measurements,

There are many lines of evidence for anisotropy at all scales in the explosions of core collapse supernovae, e.g. visual inspection of the images of resolved supernova remnants, polarization measurements, velocity profiles, "natal kicks" of neutron stars, or spectroscopic observations of different regions of remnants. Theoretical stability considerations and detailed numerical simulations have shown that Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities arise in the star after the explosion, which leads to the early fragmentation of parts of the ejecta. The clumps thus created are of interest to a variety of topics, one of them being the formation environment of the solar system. There is a high probability that the solar system formed in the vicinity of a massive star that, shortly after its formation, exploded as a core collapse supernova. As argued in this thesis as well as other works, a core collapse supernova generally is a good candidate for chemically enriching the forming solar system with material. As forming proto--planetary systems in general have a high probability of being contaminated with supernova material, a method was developed for detecting tracer elements indicative supernova contamination in proto--planetary systems.The degree of the anisotropy of the supernova explosion can have dramatic effects on the mode of delivery of that material to the solar system, or proto--planetary systems in general. Thus it is of particular interest to be able to predict the structure of the supernova ejecta. Numerical simulations of the explosions of core collapse supernovae were done in 3 dimensions in order to study the formation of structure. It is found that RT instabilities result in clumps in the He- and C+O rich regions in the exploding star that are overdense by 1-2 orders of magnitude. These clumps are potential candidates for enriching the solar system with material. In the course of the further evolution of the supernova remnant, these RT clumps are likely to evolve into ejecta knots of the type observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Atomic scale characterizations of two-dimensional anisotropic materials and their heterostructures

Description

There has been a surge in two-dimensional (2D) materials field since the discovery of graphene in 2004. Recently, a new class of layered atomically thin materials that exhibit in-plane structural

There has been a surge in two-dimensional (2D) materials field since the discovery of graphene in 2004. Recently, a new class of layered atomically thin materials that exhibit in-plane structural anisotropy, such as black phosphorous, transition metal trichalcogenides and rhenium dichalcogenides (ReS2), have attracted great attention. The reduced symmetry in these novel 2D materials gives rise to highly anisotropic physical properties that enable unique applications in next-gen electronics and optoelectronics. For example, higher carrier mobility along one preferential crystal direction for anisotropic field effect transistors and anisotropic photon absorption for polarization-sensitive photodetectors.

This dissertation endeavors to address two key challenges towards practical application of anisotropic materials. One is the scalable production of high quality 2D anisotropic thin films, and the other is the controllability over anisotropy present in synthesized crystals. The investigation is focused primarily on rhenium disulfide because of its chemical similarity to conventional 2D transition metal dichalcogenides and yet anisotropic nature. Carefully designed vapor phase deposition has been demonstrated effective for batch synthesis of high quality ReS2 monolayer. Heteroepitaxial growth proves to be a feasible route for controlling anisotropic directions. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy have been extensively applied to reveal the structure-property relationship in synthesized 2D anisotropic layers and their heterostructures.

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Date Created
  • 2018