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The spread of academic testing for accountability purposes in multiple countries has obscured at least two historical purposes of academic testing: community ritual and management of the social structure. Testing

The spread of academic testing for accountability purposes in multiple countries has obscured at least two historical purposes of academic testing: community ritual and management of the social structure. Testing for accountability is very different from the purpose of academic challenges one can identify in community “examinations” in 19th century North America, or exams’ controlling access to the civil service in Imperial China.

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    Dorn, S. (2014). Testing like William the Conqueror: Cultural and instrumental uses of examinations. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v22.1684

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