Walking and bicycling bring many merits to people, both physically and mentally.
However, not everyone has an opportunity to enjoy healthy and safe bicycling and
walking. Many studies suggested that access to healthy walking and bicycling is heavily
related to socio-economic status. Low income population and racial minorities have
poorer transportation that results in less walking and bicycling, as well as less access to
public transportation. They are also under higher risks of being hit by vehicles while
walking and bicycling. This research quantifies the relationship between socioeconomic
factors and bicyclist and pedestrian involved traffic crash rates in order to establish an
understanding of how equitable access to safe bicycling and walking is in Phoenix. The
crash rates involving both bicyclists and pedestrians were categorized into two groups,
minor crashes and severe crashes. Then, the OLS model was used to analyze minor and
severe bicycle crash rates, and minor and severe pedestrian crash rates, respectively.
There are four main results, (1) The median income of an area is always negatively
related to the crash rates of bicyclists and pedestrians. The reason behind the negative
correlation is that there is a very small proportion of people choosing to walk or ride
bicycles as their commuting methods in the high-income areas. Consequently, there are
low crash rates of pedestrians and bicyclists. (2) The minor bicycle crash rates are more
related to socio-economic determinants than the severe crash rates. (3) A higher
population density reduces both the minor and the severe crash rates of bicyclists and
pedestrians in Phoenix. (4) A higher pedestrian commuting ratio does not reduce bicyclist
and pedestrian crash rates in Phoenix. The findings from this study can provide a
reference value for the government and other researchers and encourage better future
decisions from policy makers.