Evaluation of an Organic Mineral Complex on the Development of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following a 10-week High-Fat Diet

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According to the World Health Organization, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and forty-one million children under the age of 5 are overweight or obese (World Health Organization, 2018). Exercise

According to the World Health Organization, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and forty-one million children under the age of 5 are overweight or obese (World Health Organization, 2018). Exercise is a potential intervention to prevent obesity-induced cardiovascular complications as exercise training has been shown to aid nitric oxide (NO) production as well as preserving endothelial function in obese mice (Silva et al., 2016). A soil-derived organic mineral compound (OMC) has been shown to lower blood sugar in diabetic mice (Deneau et al., 2011). Prior research has shown that, while OMC did not prevent high fat diet (HFD)-induced increases in body fat in male Sprague-Dawley rats, it was effective at preventing HFD-induced impaired vasodilation (M. S. Crawford et al., 2019). Six-weeks of HFD has been shown to impair vasodilation through oxidative-stress mediated scavenging of NO as well as upregulation of inflammatory pathways including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (Karen L. Sweazea et al., 2010). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether OMC alters protein expression of iNOS and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the vasculature of rats fed a control or HFD with and without OMC supplementation. Six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow diet (CHOW) or a HFD composed of 60% kcal from fat for 10 weeks. The rats were administered OMC at doses of 0 mg/mL (control), 0.6 mg/mL, or 3.0 mg/mL added to their drinking water. Following euthanasia with sodium pentobarbital (200 mg/kg, i.p.), mesenteric arteries and the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue were isolated and prepared for Western Blot analyses. Mesenteric arteries from HFD rats had more uncoupled eNOS (p = 0.006) and iNOS protein expression (p = 0.027) than rats fed the control diet. OMC was not effective at preventing the uncoupling of eNOS or increase in iNOS induced by HFD. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) showed no significant difference in iNOS protein expression between diet or OMC treatment groups. These findings suggest that OMC is not likely working through the iNOS or eNOS pathways to improve vasodilation in these rats, but rather, appears to be working through another mechanism.