Deductive, inductive and abductive reasoning over natural language text: a case study with adaptations, behaviors and variations in organisms

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Question answering is a challenging problem and a long term goal of Artificial Intelligence. There are many approaches proposed to solve this problem, including end to end machine learning systems,

Question answering is a challenging problem and a long term goal of Artificial Intelligence. There are many approaches proposed to solve this problem, including end to end machine learning systems, Information Retrieval based approaches and Textual Entailment. Despite being popular, these methods find difficulty in solving problems that require multi level reasoning and combining independent pieces of knowledge, for example, a question like "What adaptation is necessary in intertidal ecosystems but not in reef ecosystems?'', requires the system to consider qualities, behaviour or features of an organism living in an intertidal ecosystem and compare with that of an organism in a reef ecosystem to find the answer. The proposed solution is to solve a genre of questions, which is questions based on "Adaptation, Variation and Behavior in Organisms", where there are various different independent sets of knowledge required for answering questions along with reasoning. This method is implemented using Answer Set Programming and Natural Language Inference (which is based on machine learning ) for finding which of the given options is more probable to be the answer by matching it with the knowledge base. To evaluate this approach, a dataset of questions and a knowledge base in the domain of "Adaptation, Variation and Behavior in Organisms" is created.