Dietary Patterns among Overweight/Obese Hispanic Women at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Document
Description

Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and

Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and disease onset. Unhealthy eating contributes to T2D risk. Dietary patterns are the combination of total foods and beverages among individual’s over time, but there is limited information regarding its role on T2D risk factors among Hispanic women. Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors (age, BMI, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c) among overweight/obese Hispanic women. Design: Cross-sectional dietary data were collected among 191 women with or at risk for T2D using the Southwestern Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing the prior three months of intake. Dietary patterns were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Regression scores were used to explore associations between dietary patterns and diabetes risk factors. Results: The patterns derived were: 1) “sugar and fat-laden”, with high loads of sweets, drinks, pastries, and fats; 2) “plant foods and fish”, with high loads of vegetables, fruits, fish, and beans; 3) “soups and starchy dishes”, with high loads of soups, starchy foods, and mixed dishes; 4) “meats and snacks”, with high loads of red meat, salty snacks, and condiments; 5) “beans and grains”, with high loads of beans and seeds, whole-wheat and refined grain foods, fish, and alcohol; and 6) “eggs and dairy”, with high loads of eggs, dairy, and fats. The “sugar and fat-laden” and “meats and snacks” patterns were negatively associated with age (r= -0.230, p= 0.001 and r= -0.298, p<0.001, respectively). Scores for “plant foods and fish” were associated with fasting blood glucose (r= 0.152, p= 0.037). There were no other statistically significant relationships between the dietary patterns and risk factors for T2D. Conclusions: A variety of patterns with healthy and unhealthy traits among Hispanic women were observed. Being younger may play an important role in adhering to a dietary pattern rich in sugary and high-fat foods and highlights the importance of assessing dietary patterns among young women to early identify dietary traits detrimental for their health.