The shortest path between two locations is important for spatial analysis, location modeling, and wayfinding tasks. Depending on permissible movement and availability of data, the shortest path is either derived from a pre-defined transportation network or constructed in continuous space. However, continuous space movement adds substantial complexity to identifying the shortest path as the influence of obstacles has to be considered to avoid errors and biases in a derived path. This obstacle-avoiding shortest path in continuous space has been referred to as Euclidean shortest path (ESP), and attracted the attention of many researchers. It has been proven that constructing a graph is an effective approach to limit infinite search options associated with continuous space, reducing the problem to a finite set of potential paths. To date, various methods have been developed for ESP derivation. However, their computational efficiency is limited due to fundamental limitations in graph construction. In this research, a novel algorithm is developed for efficient identification of a graph guaranteed to contain the ESP. This new approach is referred to as the convexpath algorithm, and exploits spatial knowledge and GIS functionality to efficiently construct a graph. The convexpath algorithm utilizes the notion of a convex hull to simultaneously identify relevant obstacles and construct the graph. Additionally, a spatial filtering technique based on intermediate shortest path is enhances intelligent identification of relevant obstacles. Empirical applications show that the convexpath algorithm is able to construct a graph and derive the ESP with significantly improved efficiency compared to visibility and local visibility graph approaches. Furthermore, to boost the performance of convexpath in big data environments, a parallelization approach is proposed and applied to exploit computationally intensive spatial operations of convexpath. Multicore CPU parallelization demonstrates noticeable efficiency gain over the sequential convexpath. Finally, spatial representation and approximation issues associated with raster-based approximation of the ESP are assessed. This dissertation provides a comprehensive treatment of the ESP, and details an important approach for deriving an optimal ESP in real time.