Functional and regulatory biomolecular networks organized by DNA nanostructures

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DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate inter-molecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of other biomolecular networks to translate biochemical pathways to non-cellular environments. Presented here are a series of studies toward this application. First, a novel strategy utilized DNA origami as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multi-component systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures. Next, discrete glucose oxidase (GOx)/ horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme pairs were organized on DNA origami tiles with controlled interenzyme spacing and position. This study revealed two different distance-dependent kinetic processes associated with the assembled enzyme pairs. Finally, a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice was designed and constructed to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation were successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.