The original mediums were not texts or technologies; they were ritual actors performing acts of mediumship. Mediating between determined norms (the status quo) and emergent trends (change), they invoked divine authority to conjure meanings that proved adaptive, nonadaptive and/or maladaptive. With the advent of the written word, ritual became formalized and codified. The medium became a communication device, something abstract and external to the human condition. It then became possible to speak of "media effects" imposing influence in a logical deterministic manner.
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- Includes vita
- Partial requirement for: Ph. D., Arizona State University, 2011Note typethesis
- Includes bibliographical references (p. 352-369)Note typebibliography
- Field of study: English