Carbon can be a major constituent of crustal and mantle fluids, occurring both as dissolved ionic species (e.g., carbonate ions or organic acids) and molecular species (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4, and more complex organic compounds). The chemistry of dissolved carbon changes dramatically with pressure (P) and temperature (T).

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    Manning, C. E., Shock, E. L., & Sverjensky, D. A. (2013). The Chemistry of Carbon in Aqueous Fluids at Crustal and Upper-Mantle Conditions: Experimental and Theoretical Constraints. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 75(1), 109–148. doi:10.2138/rmg.2013.75.5

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