Philosophers in ancient Greece established a hierarchy among musical activities, with composition and cognitive knowledge being superior to performance and listening. Music's status was further solidified as an object during the Enlightenment, when the doctrine of aesthetic contemplation emerged.

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    • Originally published as a “Points for Debate” article (invited) in the British Journal of Music Education 23 (November 2006): 351-61. Originally presented as a Keynote speech for the Greek Society for Music Education biennial convention in Lamia, Greece in July 2005.

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    Humphreys, Jere T. “Toward a Reconstruction of ‘Creativity’ in Music Education,” trans. Jui-Ching Wang, Journal of Aesthetic Education 158 (2007): 4-13. Focus Issue: Arts, Culture, and Creativity: Perspectives from Music, Design, and Visual Art Education. (In Chinese, published in Taipei, Taiwan)

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