The utilization of suicide risk assessment tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. However, some professionals hesitate to utilize screening tools routinely in practice. A project was undertaken to determine if the utilization of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS) improved staff confidence in assessing suicide risk. Professionals within a psychiatric urgent care in Scottsdale, Arizona were provided with
training on the C-SSRS. Participants then utilized the C-SSRS at triage with patients presenting with depression and/or suicidality over a two-month period.
Self confidence in assessing suicide risk was evaluated utilizing The Efficacy in Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk Scale (SETSP-S). The acceptability and usability of the C-SSRS was evaluated utilizing The System Usability Scale (SUS). Findings of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test indicated changes in pre and posttest assessment scores as significant in seven of the eight assessment parameters. In addition, Cohen's effect size value suggested medium or large clinical significance in these same assessment parameters.
Evidence suggests that efficient and effective assessment can improve staff confidence in assessing for suicidality and may improve morbidity and mortality rates for patients. The utilization of tools such as the C*SSRS could reduce health care costs associated with unnecessary hospital admissions as well as rehospitalizations. The routine utilization of assessment tools such as the C-SSRS many also be beneficial to healthcare specialties outside of behavioral health such as emergency departments and urgent care settings.
Purpose: Improve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening in primary care by implementing Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) screening criteria.
Background and Significance: Evidence shows primary care providers (PCPs) are not adhering to the GOLD Guidelines for COPD screening.
Methods: Guideline education with pre/post-intervention survey and percent of eligible participants screened.
Results: Pre-intervention surveys (n=10) and post-intervention surveys (n=8) completed. Significant increase in knowledge regarding the CAT score (M score = 11.50, U = 24.000, p<.05). Part 2) 24% (n=6) of participants were screened with the CAT questionnaire.
Conclusions: PCPs are aware of the GOLD Guidelines, but do not always adhere to its recommendations. Future research should concentrate on effective ways to implement the GOLD Guidelines screening recommendations in primary care clinics.
Background: Excessive alcohol use is linked to numerous morbidities, in addition to the enormous economic impact on healthcare. Screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a proven, effective tool in reducing alcohol use; however it is severely underutilized due to barriers such as provider time constraints and lack of confidence. Numerous missed opportunities exist regarding screening and early intervention, which could significantly improve patient outcomes. An SBIRT pilot utilizing student-mediated brief interventions could serve to increase provider confidence and awareness, as well as overcome time constraint barriers.
Purpose: The purpose is to implement an SBIRT pilot at a campus clinic, utilizing nurse practioner (NP) students to conduct universal alcohol screens and brief interventions (BI) as a means to overcome barriers to accepting an evidenced based practice.
Methods: Intervention group (IG) of two providers were matched with NP students to perform screens and BI’s (n=111), while a comparison group (CG) of three providers conducted usual care (n=41). Single question screens were administered universally, followed by an AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and BI for positive screens. A pre/post pilot provider attitude survey was administered to gauge provider acceptance.
Results: Of 109 patients screened, 52% tested positive requiring a full AUDIT, 56% of AUDITS were positive requiring BI’s, 88% agreed to a BI, and 93% agreed to reduce alcohol intake. Post attitude survey revealed a 22% increase in provider acceptance. Chi square testing showed statistical significance, X²(1, N = 152) = 142.31, p < .001.
Conclusions: Utilizing students to perform universal screenings and BI’s is effective in implementing SBIRT while offering a sustainable option to overcome time constraint barriers and provider confidence as well as exposing misconceptions regarding patient acceptance.
Early and effective end-of-life care are associated with increased quality of life for those patients who may be nearing the end-of-life (EOL). However, evidence suggests that most non-palliative healthcare providers lack the skills and confidence to initiate EOL conversations. Consequently, about 70% of Americans would prefer to die at home with their families, yet only 25% die according to their wishes (State of California Department of Justice, n.d). In alignment with the Peaceful End of Life Theory, the purpose of this evidence-based project is to increase primary healthcare providers’ level of skills and confidence in end-of-life discussions.
This project utilized a pre and post study design. A total of 11 participants were recruited using convenience sampling from three primary care clinics in Phoenix, Arizona. Due to the small sample size and assumption of a non-normal distribution of the data, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. There were clinical and statistical significant improvements in the EOL knowledge of the participants after the implementation of the two-and-a-half-hour Serious Illness Care Program (Z = -2.950, p = .003) with a large effect size (r = -0.62).
The project evaluation also demonstrated that most participants deemed that the intervention was effective. A brief and systematic education session, such as the SICP can be utilized to improve non-palliative healthcare providers’ skills in having more and effective end-of-life conversations.
The number of children taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) is increasing. While SGAs produce fewer neurological side effects, the metabolic side effects of SGAs increase the risk for future cardiometabolic disease. In 2011, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry endorsed following guidelines established in 2004 recommending that people taking SGAs receive regular metabolic screening including waist circumference measurement, fasting blood glucose, and fasting lipids. Despite recommendations, studies have shown that children do not receive routine metabolic monitoring. Provider attitudes toward following guidelines can influence the rates of monitoring.
Research suggests that monitoring rates improve after psychiatric providers receive educational programs on SGA use and recommended guidelines. In response to these findings, an evidence-based educational intervention discussing SGA use in children and recommended metabolic monitoring was proposed to increase the rates of metabolic monitoring in a community-based psychiatric practice that treats children. While no results were statistically significant, the average attitude score of providers toward following guidelines was higher post-education and the proportion of providers who ordered screening tests post-education increased. To further improve metabolic monitoring, it is recommended that interventions designed to increase the subjective norms and perceived behavioral control of providers be implemented. The main limitations of this project were the small sample size and the use of self-reports to assess provider ordering of screening tests.
Maintaining good oral health during pregnancy is a significant contributor to healthy pregnancy outcomes. The physiological changes that happen during pregnancy can adversely affect women’s oral health and place her at risk for pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage and preeclampsia. The unborn child’s health can also be affected by premature birth and low birth weight. Although professional organizations have evidence-based practice guidelines for both prenatal and dental providers, the evidence shows a gap between recommendations and practice. An oral health promotion project for pregnant women was implemented in a federally qualified community health center where there was a lack of adherence to the guidelines.
The purpose of this project was to implement established oral health screening guidelines for pregnant women and to increase dental visits among pregnant women. For this project, a two-item maternal oral health-screening tool (MOS) for the prenatal providers was added into the electronic health record to standardize and document oral health screening for pregnant women at their first prenatal visit. After three months of implementation, there was a significant increase in maternal oral health screening and referral. This project may be replicated at any prenatal setting to improve oral health during pregnancy.
Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity in the world. About 42 million people worldwide have
diabetes. Poorly managed diabetes leads to long term complications and mortality. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) has been effective in preventing or delaying complications.The purpose of this project is to implement a diabetes self-management education (DSME)
program in primary care and to evaluate its impact on glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in a selected group of adults 18 years or older in a community-based practice.
The Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Projects collection contains the completed works of students from the DNP Program at Arizona State University's College of Nursing and Health Innovation. These projects are the culminating product of the curricula and demonstrate clinical scholarship.
Background: As the nation’s population ages and the prevalence of chronic diseases, like dementia, increases, informal caregivers will play an increasingly important role in maintaining independence for the elderly. Informal caregivers provide most long-term care for the elderly in this country and save hundreds of billions of dollars in healthcare costs annually. However, most informal caregivers experience burden secondary to caregiving that adversely impacts their physical, social, and/or psychological health. Caregiver burden threatens caregiver health and contributes to institutionalization of care recipients. Since the program of all-inclusive care for the elderly (PACE) model of care delivery relies heavily on informal caregivers to maintain independent aging, understanding and meeting the needs of caregivers is essential to the sustainability and success of PACE programs.
Purpose: This evidence-based practice (EBP) project was a gap analysis that surveyed 156 caregivers at an urban PACE program in the Midwest to examine caregiver demographics, caregiver burden, caregiver interest in support services, and the relationship between these variables to guide the development of caregiver programs.
Methods: Caregiver Assessments were administered to 156 caregivers via telephone or in person. The assessment included caregiver demographics, interest in caregiver services, and the 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12) to assess caregiver burden. The ZBI-12 has good reliability and validity as indicated by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.88 and a correlation with the full version ZBI scores of 0.95. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Pearson r correlation test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and the Mann-Whitney U test on SPSS version 25. This project was approved by the Arizona State University IRB.
Results/Outcomes: Of 171 eligible informal caregivers of program participants living outside of an institution, 156 completed the survey, 3 refused, and 12 were unreachable. Most informal caregivers surveyed were Caucasian (69.5%) females (66%), children of the care recipients (45.5%), caring for people with dementia (40.6%), with some college education (37.2%), who earned $10,000-$25,000 annually (38.7%), provided over 30 hours of care per week (55.8%), and averaged 61.4 years old (SD=7.7). The average ZBI-12 score was 12.15 (SD=9.04), indicating a moderate level of burden. The most common stressors indicated by caregivers were activities of daily living (ADL) assistance (63.5%) and the time commitment involved in caregiving (57.7%). Correlates to high burden score included: limited time, aggressive behavior, financial stress, grief, assistance with ADLs, wandering behavior, toileting assistance/incontinence, and lack of sleep. Respite care was identified by 42.9% of those surveyed as the most helpful resource provided by PACE. 55.1% and 50.6% of caregivers indicated an interest in educational sessions and support groups respectively, if these services were offered in the future.
Conclusion: Through the exploration of caregiver demographics, factors correlated to increased burden, and caregiver interest in support services, the results from this EBP project provide guidance to programs, particularly other PACE programs, seeking to proactively mitigate caregiver burden through support services. The results indicate that respite care, educational sessions, and support groups should be prioritized when developing informal caregiver support services.
Aim: The purpose of this project was to determine if educating elementary school personnel would improve their knowledge and self-efficacy in caring for students with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and improve the health and educational outcomes of students with this disease.
Background: Evidence suggests that teachers play a big role in the management of students with chronic illnesses. However, current literature indicates that teachers lack basic knowledge about childhood chronic illnesses and how to manage students with chronic illnesses. Synthesis of evidence indicated that an online CF educational intervention would improve knowledge and self-efficacy among school personnel, thereby improving the health and educational outcomes of students with CF.
Methods: Elementary school personnel in Southern Arizona were asked to do an online pre-survey to evaluate knowledge and self-efficacy, view a short presentation on cystic fibrosis, and complete a post-survey. Parents of students with CF were asked to track 504 plan use and CF related absences. Frequencies were used to evaluate participant demographic data and survey data. The McNemar and Wilcoxon Signed Test were used to analyze survey data.
Results: Analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in perceived knowledge (p = .024) and self-efficacy scores (p = .034). Although survey scores showed an average score improvement between pre-survey and post-survey total scores (p = .212), it was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Results showed an overall improvement in CF knowledge and self-efficacy among elementary school personnel. These results may provide an opportunity for CF healthcare providers and schools to promote the health and education of students with CF.